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Glossary - M

Militia - was a term used throughout the history of the Canadian Army to describe the impartially trained volunteer soldiers of Canada before and after Confederation. As Canada began to take responsibility for its own defence, two different types of military units began to evolve; those who were employed full-time (known as the Permanent Active Militia), and those who were employed on a part-time basis, training on weeknights, weekends, and/or at summer camps only (known as the Non-Permanent Active Militia). The term Militia referred to both the PAM and the NPAM collectively.

These official designations were changed in 1940 as the term Canadian Army was finally adopted, but the term Militia was still a popular name for the part-time soldiers who were now referred to as the Canadian Army (Reserve). Immediately after the Second World War ended in 1945, the Canadian Army Reserve Force became the designation of what was previously the Militia. That title was once again adopted as official in 1954 after the Kennedy Board published its recommendations and the Canadian Army Reserve Force became the Canadian Army (Militia). After Unification, the term Militia remained in use to describe the reserve component of Force Mobile Command.

Other titles used to refer to part-time soldiers of Canada's land forces have included "the Army Reserves" of even simply "the Reserves".

Historical Official Designations of Canada's Reserve Land Force
Before 1900 to 19 Nov 1940 Non-Permanent Active Militia (NPAM) or Militia
19 Nov 1940 - 1946 Canadian Army (Reserve)
1946 - 1954 Canadian Army Reserve Force
1954 - 1 Feb 1968 Canadian Army (Militia)
1 Feb 1968 - 1990s Force Mobile Command (Militia)
1990s - 2000 Land Force Command (Militia)

The Regular Force was the name for the full-time component of the Canadian Armed Forces; several designations have historically designated the full-time land forces (Canadian Army).

Historical Designations of Canada's Regular Land Force
Before 1900 to 19 Nov 1940 Permanent Active Militia (PAM) or Permanent Force (PF)
19 Nov 1940 - 1946 Canadian Army (Active)
1946 - 1954 Canadian Army Active Force
1954 - 1 Feb 1968 Canadian Army (Regular)
1 Feb 1968 - 1990s Force Mobile Command (Regular Force)
1990s - 2000 Land Force Command (Regular Force)

Wartime

During the First World War, the NPAM continued its part time training uninterrupted, and the prewar Militia regiments did not mobilize for the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

During the Second World War, the NPAM was ordered to mobilize units beginning in August and September 1939. In June 1940, the Minister of National Defence decided that the NPAM would continue its former role of part time training. In the summer of 1940, those infantry units of the NPAM that had not yet mobilized were authorized to recruit to full strength. Units that had already mobilized were instructed to form a second battalion for part time service at home.

As an example, on 28 June 1940 The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (M.G.) formed a 2nd Battalion at Ottawa.

 

 

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