History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Apeldoorn

The Battle Honour Apeldoorn was awarded to Canadian units who operated in or near that town during the final phase of operations in North-West Europe during the Second World War.

Background

Operation CANNONSHOT, "the crossing of the Ijssel from the East, and the capture of Apeldoorn and high ground between that place and Arnhem” had successfully been launched on the afternoon of 11 April 1945, setting the stage for Operation ANGER, the operation to secure Arnhem.

Overall Situation

On 12 April, Lieutenant-General Guy Simonds, commanding 2nd Canadian Corps, issued instructions to "clear the Germans out of Western Holland”. It was unclear how strong those garrisons were, with speculation being that "at least one or two field formations" remained to man defensive lines in the western Netherlands. After ANGER, the British 49th Infantry Division was instructed to advance from its newly won positions in Arnhem to occupy the National Highway south of Utrecht. The 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division was to also advance west, bypassing Amersfoort, and secure the high ground beyond. The 1st Canadian Division would take the city itself, relieve the 5th Armoured, and capture Utrecht, leaving the 5th to mop up remaining Germans between the Ijsselmeer and the Ijssel River.

Final Phase

The Rhine – Emmerich-Hoch Elten – Twente Canal – ZutphenDeventerArnhem, 1945Apeldoorn –  GroningenFriesoythe – Ijsselmeer – Küsten CanalWagenborgenDelfzijl PocketLeerBad Zwischenahn –  Oldenburg

In successive phases, the 49th Division was then to advance through Gouda, take The Hague, and attack Rotterdam from the west, while the 1st Division advanced on Amsterdam via Leiden and Haarlem. Lieutenant-General Foulkes, commanding the 1st Canadian Corps, issued a mandate to his formations of setting up civil administration in the western Netherlands and feeding the population as soon as possible after liberation.

But on the same day on which General Foulkes issued these instructions a change occurred in Allied strategy. Field-Marshal Montgomery came to General Crerar's headquarters at Grave and outlined his plans for the advance to the Elbe and operations against Bremen and Hamburg. High Allied authorities, considering the situation in the western Netherlands, had, we shall see, decided against an immediate operation to liberate the area. Although its people were in desperate straits for food, there was hope of relieving them without exposing them to the dangers of battle

Field Marshal Montgomery, commanding 21st Army Group, defined his policy as follows:

Present operations in the Arnhem area will be designed with the object of securing and opening the Arnhem route to the North. Only two divisions are allocated for securing the flank South of the Zuider Zee [Ijsselmeer]. If they can advance Westwards on, their own resources they will do so, but no additional engineer units or transport are available until a later stage, and their advance must therefore stop when the limit of their own resources has been reached. After Canadian Army has completed its higher priority roles [clearing the north-eastern Netherlands and the Emden-Wilhelmshaven peninsula, and dominating the Weser below Bremen and the Elbe Estuary below Hamburg] .. . resources will be switched to Western Holland for the completion of the liberation of Holland.

The instructions were passed on by General Crerar, commanding 1st Canadian Army, to the two Canadian corps commanders, on 12 April, and they were confirmed to the divisional commanders in writing by 15 April. The task of 1st Canadian Corps was no longer "clear(ing) the Germans out of Western Holland", but rather, as General Foulkes wrote to his divisional commanders, "clear(ing) enemy from Western Holland between the Ijssel and the Grebbe Line."

The Grebbe Line fortifications, stretching from the Ijsselmeer to the Lower Rhine, had been taken over by the Germans for their use after fighting over them in 1940. Intended for defence against attack from the sea, they were " a system of field fortifications between the Ijsselmeer and the Neder Rijn, based on the Eem and Grebbe rivers, and pivoting on the Neder Rijn at the extremity of a ridge called the Grebbeberg, just east of Rhenen." Unfortunately for the Germans, they pointed in the main towards the west.

Tactical Situation

On 13 April, 1st Canadian Corps again took 1st Canadian Division under its command. The division was finding harder going east of Appeldoorn, unlike the British 49th which had taken Arnhem so relatively easily. That being the case, the corps commander chose to push the 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division through the bridgehead of the 49th Division and drive 30 miles north to the Ijsselmeer, with Otterloo, Barneveld, Voorthuizen and Putten as targets, all with the code name Operation CLEANSER.

Following CLEANSER, the division would pass to control of 2nd Canadian Corps for employment in the north-eastern Netherlands, with 1st Canadian Corps then only consisting of 1st Canadian Division and British 49th Division. The latter was ordered to open the road Arnhem-Zutphen, turn west to liberate Wageningen and Ede, and clear the right bank of the Lower Rhine up to the Grebbe. The 1st Division was ordered to take Apeldoorn and advance on a parallel axis towards Voorthuizen to relieve the 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division in its positions between Voorthuizen and Barneveld.

It will be seen that the effect of these instructions was to project the 5th Division at right angles to the other divisions' main lines of advance and in rear of the German defences based on Apeldoorn. Throughout these operations the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade with the Belgians under command would continue to hold the line of the Neder Rijn and the "western approaches". (Much of the brigade's tank strength was in fact employed in the more active operations north of the Neder Rijn.) This directive set the pattern for the 1st Corps' final operations in North-West Europe.

Capture of Apeldoom

The Germans initially defended against Operation CANNONSHOT with troops from the 162nd Naval Infantry Regiment; this hastily improvised formation was easily pushed aside, but more capable opposition from the 953rd Grenadier Regiment and its parent formation, the 361st Volksgrenadier Division, stopped the 1st Canadian Infantry Division east of Apeldoorn.

On 13 April, the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade crossed the Ijssel to join the division on the west side. While the 2nd Brigade cleared the area of the initial bridgehead, the 1st and 3rd Brigades continued to advance west toward Apeldoorn in the angle formed by railways connecting Apeldoorn and Zutphen and Deventer.

The 1st Brigade, supported by tanks of the 1st Hussars (6th Canadian Armoured Regiment), attached to the 1st Division from 6 April, faced moderate resistance, artillery and mortar fire on the right flank. The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment approached Teuge, three miles east of Apeldoorn, at noon on 13 April, with the RCR keeping abreast on the left. By midnight the brigade had closed up to the Apeldoorn Canal, running north-south through the eastern portion of Apeldoorn itself, and The Royal Canadian Regiment was running patrols in the suburbs. That night a squadron of the 1st Hussars and a company of RCR tried to cross the canal, but were rebuffed with the loss of two tanks.

The 3rd Brigade, meanwhile, made good progress versus light opposition on the southern divisional flank. Despite stubborn resistance from a few strongpoints, the Germans withdrew under cover of sniper and self-propelled gun fire. Late on 13 April the 3rd Brigade held positions around Achterhoek, four miles east of Apeldoorn, its front two-and-a-half miles east of the Apeldoorn Canal.

On the morning of the 14th the boundary between the 1st and 49th Divisions ran west from the Ijssel, midway between Arnhem and Apeldoorn, and roughly parallel to the Neder Rijn. It seemed certain that the enemy intended to make a serious stand behind the canal, and the 1st Division's General Staff diarist noted gloomily, "It's the Lombardy Plains all over again." The German resistance was presumably connected with a harsh order, issued over Himmler's signature on the 12th, threatening battle commanders with death if they neglected to take adequate measures for the defence of towns and significant communication centers.

General Foster's original intention was to use the 1st and 3rd Brigades against Apeldoorn, holding the 2nd in reserve. But as a result of the quick success attending the 49th Division's assault at Arnhem he was now ordered to link up with the 49th on the left and open the main road connecting Arnhem with Zutphen along the west bank of the Ijssel. Accordingly, at 6:25 p.m. on the 14th, Foster issued new orders to the 2nd Brigade, which had been clearing the Hoven bridgehead, opposite Zutphen. Brigadier M. P. Bogert was instructed to eliminate all enemy from the west bank of the Ijssel as far south as Dieren, where his brigade would establish contact with the 49th Division. The boundary between the two divisions in this area was now to be the Apeldoorn Canal. The remainder of the 1st Division would continue its operations against Apeldoorn.

With The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada protecting the Hoven bridgehead area, the 2nd Brigade set out on the morning of 15 April, making rapid progress against what the official history called "ramshackle" enemy formations between Arnhem and Apeldoorn. The 5th Canadian (Armoured) Division had also started its drive on the Ijsselmeer, cutting behind the Germans opposite the 1st Division. The 2nd Brigade cleared the left bank of the Ijssel with The Loyal Edmonton Regiment and PPCLI straddling the Arnhem-Zutphen railway. That afternoon, the Edmontons pushed south of Brummen against token resistance while PPCLI took many prisoners in the close country on the right flank on the western side of the railway.

On the morning of 16 April, the Edmontons captured Dieren without opposition while PPCLI contacted forward troops of the British 49th Division near Eerbeek. Tanks of "A" Squadron of the 12th Canadian Armoured Regiment (Three Rivers Regiment) were active in support of Canadian infantry in these operations.

The rapidity of the completion of the 2nd Brigade's task influenced Major-General Foster, the commander of 1st Canadian Infantry Division, in his planning with regards to Apeldoorn. He is quoted in the Canadian Army's Official History:

It had never been my intention to assault Apeldoorn frontally. It was a friendly city, filled with refugees, and I was not prepared to use artillery on it. The plot was to isolate the city, by having 1 Cdn Inf Bde face up to it and thus keep the enemy garrison there occupied, and by putting 3 Cdn Inf Bde across the canal south of Apeldoorn, thus coming in from the rear. This plan was modified because 2 Cdn Inf Bde' had as usual, done a fine job in the south, and were able to get across the canal at Dieren. Thus it was not necessary for 3 Cdn Inf Bde to do an opposed crossing farther north.

Engineers bridged a canal at Dieren and the Loyal Edmontons covered the construction of a second bridge near Veldhuizen, five miles south of Apeldoorn, where the remainder of the 2nd Brigade crossed in the late afternoon of 16 April, preparing to expand the bridgehead as a base of operations for the 3rd Brigade and the assault on the city.

Apeldoorn, with a population in 1939 of 72,600, is pleasantly situated in a fertile agricultural region at the foot of the ridge that runs north from Arnhem. Het Loo, the summer residence of the Dutch royal family, stands on the northern outskirts. Before the war the town was a prosperous manufacturing place. It is an important communication centre, connected by main roads and railways with Amersfoort, Arnhem, Zutphen and Deventer. On the evening of 16 April the 1st Division was ready for the decisive stroke against the town. By this time the 5th Division had cut the enemy's principal escape route from Apeldoorn to Amersfoort and the garrison's position was untenable. There was now a new urgency in the 1st Division's operations. Late on the 16th the Chief of Staff of the 1st Corps (Brigadier George Kitching) informed divisional commanders that the 5th Division would be required to concentrate about noon on the 18th in preparation for its new commitment in the north-eastern Netherlands. Consequently, it was imperative for the 1st and 49th Divisions to secure their objectives between the Neder Rijn and the Ijsselmeer before last light on the 17th.

Enemy resistance in the city collapsed on the night of 16-17 April, and though small arms fire was exchanged on the 1st Brigade front back and forth over the canal until 03:00hrs, the Dutch Resistance reported to the RCR that the Germans suddenly evacuated after a sudden quiet fell over the town.

Acting on this sudden news, the RCR captured two Germans before they could demolish the canal's lock gates, then used the intact crossing to gain a firm hold on the eastern side of town by 04:30hrs. The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment and 48th Highlanders were ordered to follow the RCR in at dawn, and by noon Brigadier Desmond Smith had established his headquarters in the recently evacuated German commander's HQ. The Hastings were firmly established in the palace grounds at Het Loo while the 48th Highlanders had secured the north-western section of the town. The south-western section was secured by The West Nova Scotia Regiment of the 3rd Brigade, coming up from the south.

Wild rejoicing greeted our troops. "National colours of the Netherlands were flying in the brilliant sunlight from almost every house and shop." Mixed with the enthusiasm of the people who thronged the streets was profound relief that the operations had caused so little damage to the town. Such scenes were repeated many times in these last days of the campaign.

Aftermath

In total, seven days of operations (11-17 April 1945) cost the infantry battalions of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division 506 casualties (by brigade, 184, 183 and 125 for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively). The Saskatoon Light Infantry (M.G.), the divisional support battalion, lost 14 men while firing mortars and machine guns in support of all three brigades.

German losses were heavier, with 40 officers and 2,515 other ranks being collected as prisoners by the 1st Canadian Division in this period.

"There was no pause at Apeldoorn. On the morning of the 17th General Foster ordered his brigades to drive west as quickly as possible to relieve the 5th Division at Barneveld and Voorthuizen."


Battle Honours

The following Canadian units were awarded the Battle Honour "Apeldoorn" for participation in these actions:

Image:1tankbde.gif 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

  • 12th Canadian Armoured Regiment (The Three Rivers Regiment)

Image:2tankbde.gif 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade

  • 6th Canadian Armoured Regiment (1st Hussars)

Image:3gif8bde.gif 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • The North Shore (New Brunswick) Regiment

Image:1gif.gif 1st Canadian Division

  • The Saskatoon Light Infantry (MG)

Image:1gif1bde.gif 1st Canadian Brigade

  • The Royal Canadian Regiment

  • 48th Highlanders of Canada

  • The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada

Image:1gif2bde.gif 2nd Canadian Brigade

  • Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry

  • The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment

  • The Loyal Edmonton Regiment

Image:1gif3bde.gif 3rd Canadian Brigade

  • Royal 22e Regiment

  • The Carleton and York Regiment

  • The West Nova Scotia Regiment

References

  • Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Volume III: The Victory Campaign

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