History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Dunkirk, 1944

Dunkirk, 1944 was a Battle Honour granted to Canadian units participating in actions near this port during the operations from 8 September 1944 to 15 September 1944, as part of the overall battle to clear the Channel Ports.

Allied supplies were being sent to France mainly via the open beaches in Normandy; the need to secure a sizeable port facility was thus acute. The port of Dunkirk was put under siege, and the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division fought several actions from 6 to 18 September 1944 in an attempt to capture the port. These action also consisted of much patrolling, with some successful battles such as Loon Plage standing out from what was otherwise a dreary episode for the Canadians. The port never fell, and like many of the French Channel ports, it remained in German hands until May 1945.

The 2nd Division, which had paused at Dieppe to refit and commemorate its sacrifice there in August 1942, was ordered forward again on September 6th, 1944. It was assigned a stretch of coast from just east of Calais to Dunkirk itself.

Bourbourgville

The Black Watch seized a bridge site south Bourbourgville, attacking through heavy rain and high winds, as well as flooded ditches, a result of deliberate attempts by the Germans to inundate the battlefield by blowing the canal banks as a defensive measure. The Germans held the town itself securely, behind a canal completely ringing the built-up area, which could be covered by fire from the market-square, with a centrally located church also covering likely avenues of approach. Artillery was used to good effect also as the Canadians approached the town. Le Régiment de Maisonneuve managed to secure boats from local civilians, and also erected a hasty foot bridge built from planks. Under heavy pressure, the German defenders were forced to withdraw to the north end of the town, where they held onto the railway station with the help of a pair of 20mm anti-aircraft guns. The Maisonneuves silenced the guns while the Calgary Highlanders attempted to approach the town from the west, finally driven to ground in the open and told to wait until morning.1

Fighting lasted into the night but the town was considered clear on the night of 7-8 September, and the brigade was ordered to "contain the garrison" inside the port - estimated at 10,000 German troops - with a perimeter of outposts in Mardick, Loon Plage, Spycker, Bergues and Bray Dunnes.2

Loon Plage

At first light on 8 September, the Calgary Highlanders again moved towards Dunkirk, passing through Les Planches, the first objective, but stopped once again by heavy enemy artillery fire at their second objective, a road junction. On ground difficult to dig in, a company was sent to try and take Loon Plage from the west flank, but here too was stopped by a farmhouse 500 yards from the village. When the Maisonneuves were ordered forward to assist, it took five hours for the lead company to come within a mile of the Highlanders, a point their War Diarist grumblingly committed to posterity.

The Maisonneuves, like the Calgaries, were trying to invest the Dunkirk perimeter against formidable odds. The enemy had ample supplies of artillery shells, enough, as it turned out, to defend Dunkirk until the war was over, good observation of all daylight movement, and an intimate knowledge of the terrain. The infantry battalions, without any armour or air support, and without a clear mission were pressing forward without taking time for reconnaissance and without making full use of intelligence from the French resistance forces in the area.3

Coppenaxfort

The Black Watch, too, tried to move forward without adequate support, attacking on the right flank of the brigade with a troop of armoured cars from the divisional reconnaissance regiment. Their axis of advance led them up a straight, elevated road on the bank of a canal, devoid of trees, hedges or cover. The infantry had to advance single file; the lead armoured car, 100 yards behind the first troops, was knocked out early by an anti-tank gun firing at long range. Machine gun and mortar fire came down next. The Canadian infantry could not dig-in, and supporting fire from the 5th Field Regiment was hampered by ammunition shortages and prior commitment to the other two infantry battalions of the brigade. The Black Watch was forced to pull back and regroup. The next morning, a single platoon with an armoured car in support rushed forward to find the Germans had pulled out in the night.

These gains meant little to 5 Brigade for they now found themselves occupying positions the Germans had carefully surveyed as artillery targets. Throughout the following week the brigade used fighting patrols to harass the enemy, and battalion attacks to compress the perimeter.4

During this period following the initial attacks on the Dunkirk defences, German shellfire remained intense, despite civilian assistance in locating German positions.

6th Brigade

East of Dunkirk, the 6th Brigade occupied Furnes, Nieuport and La Panne, having received assistance at Nieuport from the Belgian White Brigade (the national resistance movement) in locating enemy positions and minefields. The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada occupied German coastal positions west of La Panne and on 12 September the 6th Brigade was ordered to clear Bray Dunnes and Bray Dunnes Plage. Two days of attacks by the Camerons proved unsuccessful until Typhoon aircraft and the South Sasktachewan Regiment came in to assist, and the task was finally complete on the 15th. Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal took Ghyvelde after several attempts.

4th Brigade

The 4th Brigade had an easier time in this period, originally placed in reserve. On 9 September, they occupied Ostend. Though the town contained a sizeable port, the Germans chose not to defend it despite numerous sturdy fortifications there. The port, partially demolished, was reopened on September 28th. East of Nieuport the Essex Scottish Regiment laid siege to another formidable looking coastal installation and laid down mortar, anti-tank and anti-aircraft fire of such volume that the enemy surrendered on September 12th without the need for an assault. As they collected 316 prisoners for the loss of two killed and three wounded, the Royals and the RHLI moved to Bruges, from which the enemy also fled before the 12th Manitoba Dragoons arrived to liberate it.

The brigade turned its attention back to Dunkirk, and the RHLI put in an attack at Bergues on the 15th which bogged down in flooded terrain. The enemy withdrew and the 8th Reconnaissance Regiment occupied the town on the 16th, by which time the entire 2nd Division was in the process of leaving the Dunkirk perimeter for Antwerp.5

Private R.J. Travis of No.3 Leaflet Unit placing propaganda leaflets into a shell to be fired by Sergeant T. McCormick of the 191 Hearst and Essex Yeomanry Field Regiment, Royal Artillery (British Army), into German-held positions in Dunkirk, France, ca. 15-25 September 1944. Library and Archives Canada photo.

Battle Honours

The following Canadian units were awarded the Battle Honour "Dunkirk, 1944" for participation in these actions:

Image:2gif.gif 2nd Canadian Division

  • The Toronto Scottish Regiment (MG)

Image:2gif4bde.gif 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • The Royal Regiment of Canada

Image:2gif5bde.gif 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada

  • Le Régiment de Maisonneuve

  • The Calgary Highlanders

Image:2gif6bde.gif 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal

  • The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada

  • The South Saskatchewan Regiment

 

Notes

  1. Copp, Terry The Brigade (Fortress Publications, Inc., Stoney Creek, ON, 1992) pp.120-121
  2. Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War Volume II: The Victory Campaign (Queen's Printer, 1960) p.327
  3. Copp, Ibid, p.123
  4. Ibid, pp.123-124
  5. Stacey, Ibid

References

  • McKay, A. Donald Gaudeamus Igitur (Bunker to Bunker Books, Calgary, AB, 2005)

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