History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Walcheren Causeway

Walcheren Causeway was a Battle Honour granted to Canadian units participating in actions fought near and on the causeway linking South Beveland and the Walcheren Island, during the Battle of the Scheldt in the North-West Europe Campaign of the Second World War.

The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division cleared South Beveland to the east in the last days of October, and approached Walcheren Island itself on 31 October 1944. The plan was to cross the Slooe Channel, but leading troops of the 5th Canadian Brigade found that assault boats were useless in the deep mud of the channel. The only route open was the 40 yard wide Walcheren Causeway, a mile-long land bridge from South Beveland to the Island. The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada sent a company across on the evening of 31 October which was stopped with considerable losses. The Calgary Highlanders then sent two companies over in succession, one close to midnight on the 31st and the other just before dawn on 1 Nov. The second attack opened up a bridgehead on the island, but the Highlanders were eventually thrown back, having lost 64 killed and wounded. Le Régiment de Maisonneuve relieved them on the causeway, followed by the Glasgow Highlanders of the British Army.

Battle of the Scheldt

The ScheldtLeopold Canal – Woensdrecht – Savojaards PlaatBreskens Pocket – South Beveland – Walcheren Causeway – The Lower Maas

 

 

On 1 Nov 1944, the British Special Service Brigade landed on the western end of the island in order to silence the German coastal batteries looking out over the Scheldt, which was the key to opening shipping lanes to Antwerp. The amphibious assault (Operation INFATUATE) proved a success and by 8 November all German resistance on the island had been overrun. In the meantime, all Canadian units were withdrawn in the first part of Nov and began their move to the Nijmegen Salient where they would spend the winter.

Detailed Account

At 0950 hours on the 31 October, Operation SWITCHBACK - the effort by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, 4th Canadian (Armoured) Division and 1st Polish Armoured Division, to clear all Germans south of the West Scheldt - was completed. That same day, South Beveland was at last cleared of Germans. To the east, Canadian troops had taken Bergen op Zoom and the Allies were pressing north. However, the great port at Antwerp, so essential to easing the Allies' logistical problems, was still unusable because of the German batteries located on Walcheren Island.

The 40 yard wide Walcheren Causeway contained a road, a set of railway tracks, a bicycle path, and a thin line of poplars. While many Germans retreated over the causeway to Walcheren Island, others chose to surrender to the Allies instead; their losses in dead and wounded had been heavy.

Canadian intelligence maps, printed on 23 October, showed German defences east of the causeway in detail, but none at the western end. It was hoped that the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division could "bounce" the Causeway - take it in a lightning move from the confused and reeling Germans. Middleburg, the capital town on Walcheren Island, was only 4000 yards inland.

On 30 October, the Royal Regiment of Canada was only half a mile from the eastern end of the Causeway. The Division commander ordered them to prepare to drive over the narrow strip of land and enable another brigade to pass through onto Walcheren itself. The commander of 4th Brigade, however, saw that the Causeway was bordered on each side by mud flats, which were hidden at high tide. He though a water crossing would have a better chance of success than a charge down the causeway. The Second Division had trained in assault crossings in England, in anticipation of the need to do so at the Seine. Since his troops were tired, and since only two units of the 2nd Division had taken assault boat training (the Calgary Highlanders being one of them), the job was passed on to the Fifth Brigade.

The Calgary Highlanders found that boats could not cross the Slooe Channel (also referred to as "Sloe"), however, and last minute plans were drawn up. A company of the Black Watch went forward on the late evening of 31 October. Canadian guns of all calibres, including light and medium artillery, anti-aircraft guns, and mortars, bombarded the dykes along the far end of the Causeway. The Black Watch managed to get halfway across the Causeway before being stopped by heavy casualties.

"B" Company of the Calgary Highlanders went forward next, finding even the entrance to the Causeway under heavy enemy fire; the most alarming enemy weapon was the high velocity anti-tank gun that fired straight down the length of the Causeway. The Highlanders could see enemy shells bouncing off the pavement. The Company could go no farther than the crater in the middle of the Causeway. The crater, blown by German engineers, not only provided cover but also prevented any armour from crossing over. Any entry onto Walcheren Island would have to be by unsupported infantry.

A new fire plan was drawn up, and shortly before dawn "D" Company moved down the Causeway, managing to inch their way to a German roadblock at the far end. The leading troops rushed the roadblock, seized 15 prisoners, and radioed back their success. Soon the other three companies were coming forward to reinforce the bridgehead. By 9:33 am the objectives at the western end were reported secure.

The four companies fanned out on the eastern end of Walcheren Island, but the fighting was bitter and intense. "D" Company lost all its officers killed or wounded, prompting the Brigade Major of the 5th Brigade (a staff officer) to volunteer to take over. Permission was granted, and George Hees (future Minister of Veterans Affairs) went forward with an Artillery Forward Observation Officer as his second in command.

As the fighting raged into the afternoon on 1 November, German counter-attacks took a deadly toll of the Highlanders on Walcheren Island. Sergeant Emile Jean Laloge, of 18 Platoon, found himself picking up German grenades and throwing them back at the Germans. Laloge earned the DCM several times; when a Bren gunner was killed, Laloge repaired the gun and turned in on the Germans. When the PIAT man was also wounded, he turned this weapon on the enemy as well.

In the face of heavy opposition, however, the Calgary Highlanders were forced to withdraw from the island, handing over a small bridgehead to Le Regiment de Maisonneuve on the evening of 1 November.

Major George Hees was an artillery officer serving on staff of the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade when he was made aware of a shortage of officers in  the Walcheren bridgehead. He volunteered to go forward and take over "A" Company, along with Captain Walter Newman, one of the Forward Observation Officers. Hees was shot in the arm, but stayed put. The C.O. of the Highlanders, Lieutenant Colonel Ross Ellis, later said that "It took a lot of guts for a guy who had never been in action to go into a hell-hole like that one." Calgary Highlanders Archives Photo

John Moffat, shown above right, was a 25 year old platoon commander when he was killed at the Walcheren Causeway – shot dead as "B" Company attempted to withdraw from the bridgehead on the 1st of November. Calgary Highlanders Archives Photo

Wynn Lasher took his "A" Company over the Causeway and was wounded along with all the officers in his company during the bitter fighting for the bridgehead. The Germans were determined not to permit an advance on Middelburg; for the first time the Calgary Highlanders experienced German flamethrowers being used against them. Calgary Highlanders Archives Photo

Le Regiment de Maisonneuve

The Maisonneuves were in reserve in a small village 500 yards east of the causeway, apparently having already been informed that the Division was warned to move to a rest area at Lierre, Belgium. At 2100 hours on 1 November the company and platoon commanders of "D" Company (now consisting of 40 all ranks, which included 8 Belgian volunteers) were summoned to an "O" Group and told that they had to renew the attack on the bridgehead. The plan was for "D" Company to attack at 04:00hrs on 2 November, with "B" Company to follow along, and be relieved by the 1st Battalion, The Glasgow Highlanders of the 52nd (Lowland) Division of the British Army. A platoon commander of the Maisonneuves later wrote:

Promptly at 0400 hours, preceded by a thunderous barrage by some 72 guns, Forbes' 18 Platoon, and mine, the 16th, moved up the causeway. It was like entering a giant blast furnace stoked with fireworks. The enemy was not taken by surprise, his fire power not diminished, nor indeed his will to resist. The Maisies ran forward, falling to the ground more by stumbling on the broken-up cobblestones than by a wish to find shelter in the water-filled shell holes. Moving shadows ahead of us were targeted until it was realized that, unknown to us, some Calgarians were still caught on the causeway. This moment of panic passed and we resumed our progress. For us, a zigzagging escape forward seemed our best protection. Indeed, so desperate was this thrust that it took the survivors some 500 metres past the western entrance to the causeway, this was realized when we reached a lateral road passing under the railway viaduct. Lieutenant Forbes and his underpass. I deployed a dozen men along the same road, facing south. Our best protection was a water-filled ditch. For a while, as dawn rose and we shivered from cold and exhaustion, in waist-deep water, the war was abnormally quiet. The peace was short-lived. From an opening in the dyke, some 500 metres south, a 20 mm gun on a mobile platform opened fire down the road and through the viaduct.  I told Private J.C. Carrière, accompanied by a Belgian volunteer, to wade up the ditch, with the PIAT, to see if he could silence the gun. On their second try, they were successful and Private Carrière thus earned the Military Medal.

 A new threat arose, this time from the north. A German tank was rumbling down the road heading for the viaduct. Thoughts of becoming a prisoner of war flashed through my mind until, miraculously, a rocket-firing Typhoon appeared on the scene. While the tank was not destroyed, it quickly reversed direction.

The promised relief by the British was not in sight. What was to be a one-hour excursion on Walcheren stretched to ten before we got word to withdraw regardless, at 1400 hours. We later learned that the British brigade commander of a force trained as mountain troops but who received its baptism of fire below sea level, had taken the view that he would not commit more troops to the relief operation that there were Canadians desperately hanging on the perilous bridgehead.

The word was passed to Lieutenant Forbes. It was a "sauve-qui-peut" - every man for himself. The race, in reverse this time was carried out in broad daylight, along the railroad bank from which the enemy could lob grenades and snipers, across the open field, had a clear view of moving targets. There were more Canadian casualties helping each other in the rearward flight.

I ensured that the last acknowledged member of my depleted platoon had passed by. One man, Private Fortier, was left behind because of his serious wounds. He was possibly cared for by the Germans before their capitulation, for he died later, having been evacuated to England. Lieutenant Forbes and his handful of men left later in the afternoon, suffering through the same gauntlet of fire. At the western end of the causeway, a platoon of British soldiers was deployed around the crater.

My mind numbed and physically exhausted, I finally reached the far end of this miserable causeway where our company quartermaster was mercifully greeting the survivors. I emptied the cupful of rum he handed me. I do not recall anything about the delayed move to the rest area at Lierre.1

Aftermath

On 2 November 1944 the 2nd Division was pulled out of the line for a period of protracted rest, eventually joining the First Canadian Army in the Nijmegen Salient. The Calgary Highlanders suffered 64 men killed, wounded or missing during the Battle of Walcheren Causeway.

The battle is still commemorated annually by The Calgary Highlanders. Representatives and members of the local Dutch community in Calgary are usually invited to attend the ceremonies.

A permanent monument was erected at the site of the causeway itself and dedicated in the 1980s. The causeway no longer exists as such; land on both sides of the former railway embankment has been reclaimed and the Sloe Channel is now farmland. Remnants of German concrete fortifications still exist both on Walcheren Island and South Beveland.

In the 21st Century, the monuments were relocated due to rail and road construction. A large monument dedicated to the French troops that fought a battle there in May 1940 predominates, overlooking memorials to both the 52nd (Lowland) Division and the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade who fought in and around the island in the autumn of 1944.

Battle Honours

The following Canadian units were awarded the Battle Honour "Walcheren Causeway" for participation in these actions:

Image:2gif5bde.gif 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

  • The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada

  • Le Régiment de Maisonneuve

  • The Calgary Highlanders

References

  • Bercuson, David Jay Battalion of Heroes: the Calgary Highlanders in World War II Calgary Highlanders Regimental Funds Foundation,Calgary, AB, 1994.
  • Calgary Highlanders War Diary
  • Copp, Terry The Brigade: the Fifth Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1939-45 Fortress Publications, Stoney Creek, ON, 1992.
  • Farran, Roy Alexander The History of the Calgary Highlanders, 1921-54 Bryant Press, Calgary, AB, 1955.  pp.174-175
  • Holm, Frank P. A Backwards Glance: The Personal Story of an Infantry Signaller With The Calgary Highlanders in World War II Frank P. Holm, Sault Ste. Marie, ON, 1989.
  • Kaufman, David and Michiel Horn. A Liberation Album: Canadians in the Netherlands 1944-45. The Bryant Press Ltd, 1980 ISBN 0070924295

Notes

  1. Merlis, Guy "Walcheren Causeway Revisited" Canadian Military Journal Volume 3, Issue 2

 


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