History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

Advance to Victory
 

The German offensive of March 1918 had brought the enemy very close to winning the First World War. After the Russian Revolution freed up the need to tie down the German Army in a two-front war, 177 divisions streamed to the west, while the British, already having suffered great loss in the 3rd Battle of Ypres, transferred, along with the French, 11 divisions to Italy. In return, the Americans, newly joining the war, could only offer six divisions, none with battle experience. Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, commanding the British Expeditionary Force on the continent, asked for 605,000 reinforcements from the UK. The British Prime Minister, no longer having faith in the Army, sent 100,000.

Events played out beyond logic; the German offensive smashed the British 5th Army, but the Germans failed to reap the rewards. Only one of their three armies made good on early gains and the Allies reorganized in the face of their difficulties. Haig insisted on unifying under one commander - the French Marshal Foch - and stalemate again fell over the front. Reinforcements again flowed to the British, and as more Americans began to arrive, the Allies began to plan their final offensives.

During all this activity in the spring of 1918, the Canadian Corps remained relatively inactive in its part of the line along the Lens-Arras front. The corps commander, General Arthur Currie, refused to break up the corps or let individual Canadian divisions be split off to reinforce British formations. With conscription implemented in Canada, a flow of reinforcements was guaranteed and by August, the Canadian Corps was in fine shape to spearhead the offensive being planned.

Western Front

Trench Warfare: 1914-1916
Allied Offensive: 1916
Allied Offensives: 1917
German Offensive: 1918
Advance to Victory: 1918


Amiens

The site chosen was Amiens; with part of the Canadian Corps operating at Ypres as a deception, the bulk of the Corps, with the Australian Corps alongside, launched its offensive on 8 August 1918 with 450 tanks in support. There was no artillery bombardment to signal the Germans to the coming offensive - just the sound of Royal Air Force aircraft to mask the noise of the tanks. Just seven German divisions, severely undermanned (with about 3,000 men each) in poorly prepared defences were in place at 4:20 a.m. when Canada's 100 Days began. The three Canadian divisions in the initial attack attacked into dense fog behind a rolling barrage and for the first time the infantry carried only what they needed to fight with. By nightfall, 8,000 Germans had given up to the Canadians, and 17,600 in all. Four Victoria Crosses were awarded for the day's activities and the Germans were sent reeling eight miles backwards. German commander General Ludendorff, one of the managers of the enemy war effort, described it as the "black day of the German army." In all, 27,000 Germans were killed, wounded or captured by the British 4th Army. On 9 August, the Battle of Amiens continued, with four more Victoria Crosses being awarded, though German divisions were rushing to the front. Four more miles of gains were added, but casualties for the Canadians - 2,754 - were lighter. On 10 August, German reinforcements had arrived in great numbers, but casualties had been so heavy that Kaiser Wilhelm began initiating peace negotiations through neutral representatives. The Canadian Corps was ordered to the Arras sector on August 14 as the fighting at Amiens wound down.

Advance to Victory 1918

Amiens – Arras, 1918 – Scarpe, 1918 – Drocourt-Quéant – Hindenburg Line – Epéhy – Canal du Nord – St. Quentin Canal – Beaurevoir – Cambrai, 1918 – Ypres, 1918 – Valenciennes – Sambre – Pursuit to Mons – Courtrai

The Hindenburg Line

After Amiens, Marshals Foch and Haig agreed to keep the pressure on the Germans, launching successive attacks at different locations on the Western Front. As the Canadian Corps returned to familiar ground near Arras, plans were made for the British 3rd Army to attack at Bapaume while the 1st Army pushed towards Cambrai with the Canadian Corps in the lead. The British 4th Army was to stand ready to advance should the Germans show signs of retreating along the Somme.

On 21 August, the French attacked south of Soissons, pushing ahead four miles in two days, while the British 3rd Army attacked at Bapaume the same day and progressed two miles, taking 5,000 prisoners. On 22 August, the 4th Army joined in, attacking on both sides of the Somme.

To the front of the Canadian Corps lay the Drocourt-Quéant (D-Q) Line, the northern hinge of the Hindenburg Line, a deep concentration of fortified trench networks, and the last well-prepared German positions in the west. On 26 August, the British 1st Army went into the attack with three divisions; the 51st (Highland), 2nd Canadian and 3rd Canadian. Officially known as the Battle of the Scarpe, the action began two hours before dawn, and strongly held-hills on the flanks fell in flanking attacks. The Canadian Corps was 6,000 yards into enemy territory by the end of the day. For two days more, heavy fighting ensued, as the Canadians waded through prepared positions and the Germans struggled to reinforce the line with fresh divisions. By 28 August, the 1st and 4th Divisions had to relieve the exhausted assault formations, but not until after the 3rd Division smashed through the Fresnes-Rouvroy Line. After three days of fighting, the Corps had advanced five-and-a-half miles for a loss of 5,801 men.

On 30 August, the Canadian Corps examined the task now facing it: the D-Q Line, 2,000 yards beyond the Fresnoy-Rouvroy Line. The D-Q Line was the northernmost of the Hindenburg Line fortifications and taking it would endanger the entire German line. General Currie caused for a pause so that artillery could be redeployed and operations thoroughly planned. On 2 September, the 1st and 4th Divisions, with a British brigade attached, attacked behind a massive barrage with two companies of Mark V tanks per division. Seven Victoria Crosses testified to the day's ferocity, though resistance was sporadic and in places the Germans surrendered in large numbers. The first line of defences was in friendly hands by 08:00 a.m. and by mid-afternoon almost all of the D-Q Line belonged to the Canadians. During the evening, at heavy cost, a subsidiary trench line was assaulted by the 1st Division; six more VCs were added to the tally and 6,000 more yards of ground gained. General Currie ordered a further advance for the next day, but the Germans pulled back to the Canal du Nord and the Canadian Corps pressed on to the canal without resistance. The Germans, in fact, were in a general retreat across the British front.

Canal du Nord to Cambrai

After a detailed reconnaissance of the Canal du Nord, General Currie received permission to shift the southern boundary of the Canadian Corps even further to the south in order to attack over a section of the canal still under construction, avoiding the 100-yard wide canal and its heavily defended flooded banks. With a firm bridgehead established, he planned to spread out laterally before driving on Cambrai. The plan was complex and risky, exposing the Corps by bunching them in a small area during the crossing, but the appeal of achieving surprise was too great for Currie to ignore.

After the sun fell on 26 September, the 1st and 4th Divisions left their positions behind the D-Q Line and crowded into their assembly areas. The opening barrage began at 05:20hrs the next morning and four battalions from the 1st and 10th Brigades met only light opposition on the far edge of the dry canal bank. An hour later a 2,000 yard wide bridgehead had been secured, and by 14:00 hrs the final bridgehead objectives, 5,000 yards out, were achieved and the 11th British Division was able to pass through to the left. By nightfall the 2nd Brigade had pressed on 5,000 yards more, until running into the wire entanglements of the Marcoing Line, the final trench lines barring the way into Cambrai.

The 4th Division ran into heavier opposition on the right near Bourlon Wood, and heavy fire also developed on that flank when British units failed to keep pace across the Army boundary. Nonetheless, despite being outnumbered two to one, the 11th and 12th Brigades ground forward and cleared the Bourlon heights by 20:00 hrs.

In short order, fresh German reinforcements appeared, in the form of seven infantry divisions, as the Canadians set out to reduce the Marcoing Line on 28 August. In a series of small battles, the line was taken, but territorial gains were limited over the next three days as the Corps tried to advance to the north of Cambrai, and with mounting casualties, operations were halted on 1 October.

The Allies continued to press all along the front, as French, British, American and Belgian armies kept up attacks on the continually weakened German armies. General Ludendorff insisted that the German chancellor ask the U.S. President to open negotiations for an armistice. Germany was close to collapse, but the Army was convinced it had to hold as much ground as possible to keep the terms of any surrender favourable.

When the Canadians renewed their attack on Cambrai on 9 October, the Germans were in the process of shifting to a new position - the Hermann Line - which they wished to establish to the northeast near Valenciennes. Cambrai fell while German rearguards attempted to destroy installations behind them and Canadian troops rushed to secure key bridges, among them an engineer captain who became the only Canadian sapper awarded the VC. As Cambrai was being liberated, the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, a component of the British 3rd Cavalry Division, was fighting their last actions of the war 12 miles to the southeast. The Canadian Corps was relieved on 11 October after 47 days of action, during which it had advanced 22 miles and encountered almost 25% of the German divisions in France. The casualty count had been almost 31,000, two-thirds of those at Cambrai.

The Pursuit to Mons

As the Germans continued their withdrawal to the Hermann Line, anchored on Valenciennes, the Canadians began a cautious pursuit even though patrols confirmed that only enemy rearguards lay ahead of the Corps. General Currie gave the order to avoid decisive engagements, and the sense that the war would soon be over was almost palpable. The Corps advanced for a week, meeting scattered opposition and encountering demolished bridges and cratered roads that slowed the way and hampered the movement of the artillery and supplies. The Corps halted a few thousand yards from Valenciennes on 23 October to let the British units on the flanks catch up.

Valenciennes promised to be a tough objective; the Germans were determined to make a stand here, too, with five divisions centred on the wooded Mont Houy. The city itself was protected by flooded terrain to north and west leaving an approach only open from one direction. The British attacking Mont Houy on 28 October, but were thrown off of it.

General Currie was determined not to pay the price in men at this stage of the war if he could use shells instead. On 1 November the 10th Brigade moved out under what was later described as the heaviest single brigade fire plan of the entire war. By 08:15 hrs, in three hours' time, the 44th, 46th and 47th Battalions captured the feature and advanced 4,000 yards into the southern environs of Valenciennes. The city fell the next day, and the Germans all along the front were once again streaming to the east.

The next objective for the Corps was Mons, where the British Expeditionary Force had begun the war so famously. The Corps advanced against sporadic sniper and machine gun fire, and once again the Canadian advance was cautious, but on 10 November, they had reached Mons, and at daybreak on the last day of the war, entered the city without firing a shot.

At 11:00 hrs, at the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month - it was over.

Not everyone got the word in time. Private George Pria of the 28th Battalion was leading a patrol north of the city when he was killed by a sniper at two minutes to 11. Elsewhere Canadian troops greeted the peace with quiet uncertainty. "What a strange and peaceful calm followed. Not a cheer went up from anyone," wrote Private Patrick Gleason of the 46th Battalion.1

Legacy

Historian Jack Granatstein compiled a list of "12 Military Events that Shaped Canada"; among them was "The Hundred Days":

The Canadian Corps' victory at Vimy Ridge in April 1917 commands the attention of Canadians still. The success of the set-piece Easter attack at Vimy gave the Corps its élan and its nationalistic pride, but it did little to alter the course of the war. What did lead the Allies to victory was the Hundred Days. In March 1918, the Germans launched the first of a succession of massive offensives on the Western Front. The Allies reeled backwards, but ultimately held, and on Aug. 8 the British, French and Americans were ready to attack. Led by the Canadian and Australian Corps, Sir Douglas Haig's attack at Amiens on Aug. 8 was "the black day" of the German Army. General Sir Arthur Currie's Canadians pressed eastward in a three-month-long succession of battles, smashing the enemy's heavily fortified Drocourt-Quéant Line, crossing the Canal du Nord, taking Valenciennes, and ending the war on Nov. 11 at Mons, Belgium, where British troops had first faced the German army in 1914. Despite sufferin 45,000 casualties since August, the Corps had made huge territorial gains, defeated enemy divisions in wholesale, cemented its reputation as a corps d'elite, and played the greatest and most decisive ever battlefield role by Canadian troops.2

Notes

  1. Marteinson, John. We Stand on Guard: An Illustrated History of the Canadian Army (Ovale Publications, Montreal, PQ, 1992) ISBN 2894290438 p.208

  2. Granatstein, J.L. "12 Military Events That Shaped Canada" Legion Magazine (November/December 2012)


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