History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

International Force in East Timor

The International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission involving Canadians. The mission ran concurrently with the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) and was created to provide assistance to that mission.

Background

East Timor was colonized by Portugal in the 16th Century and in 1960 the United Nations placed the colony on its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. After promises by Portugal in 1974 to establish a provisional government, civil war erupted between pro-independence and anti-independence factions. Portugal, unable to control the situation, withdrew. Indonesia responded with a military intervention, claiming East Timor as a 27th province, but this annexation was never recognized by the UN.

In 1982, the United Nations Secretary General began talks with Indonesia and Portugal to resolve the situation. In Jun 1998, Indonesia proposed autonomy for East Timor within Indonesia, and a set of agreements were signed in New York in May 1999. The United Nations, entrusted with the organization of a consultation with the East Timor people about autonomy within the Republic of Indonesia, established the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) on 11 Jun 1999 to carry it out. The mission registered 451,000 voters, and on 30 Aug 1999 some ninety eight percent of those registered voted to reject the autonomy in favour of a move towards independence.

The vote resulted in widespread violence in the region, between pro-integration militias (sometimes with the help of security forces from Indonesia) resulting in many deaths and displacements. In all some 250,000 East Timorese left or were forced out of the country. Indonesia formally recognized the result of the vote on 19 Oct 1999.

A Security Council Mission visit to the region concluded on 12 Sep 1999 and Indonesia accepted an offer of assistance. INTERFET was authorized under Australian command, tasked to lend protection and assistance to UNAMET, as well as the restoration of peace and security as well as humanitarian aid.

INTERFET engaged in humanitarian airdrops, deploying relief workers, and repatriating citizens from West Timor and other areas in the absence of Indonesian police, military and administrative personnel who left after the first outbreaks of violence.

The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) was established in 1999 following the result of the vote and on 28 Feb 2000, INTERFET handed command of military operations to that mission.

Mandate

In response to the deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in East Timor, INTERFET was created in Sep 1999 in response to Security Council Resolution 1264 (1999) to re-establish order in the region. INTERFET began to hand over its responsibilities to a United Nations mission, the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), on 1 Feb 2000 and completed the transition at the end of that month.

Canadian Military Involvement

Operation TOUCAN was the Canadian contribution to the International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) and the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). It began in Oct 1999 with the deployment for six months of 600 Canadian Forces personnel, including construction engineers from Esquimalt, BC and Moncton, NB, the 250 sailors of the replenishment ship HMCS Protecteur, with a CH-124 Sea King helicopter detachment that completed 157 sorties, a 250-strong Company Group drawn mostly from the 3e Bataillon, Royal 22e Régiment, and a tactical airlift detachment of 100 Air Force personnel and two CC-130 Hercules aircraft from 8 Wing Trenton. During the initial phase of the operation, when a safe and secure environment was established and the infrastructure for UNTAET was put into place, the Canadian contingent provided security, construction engineering services, airlift and sealift. During the follow-on phase, Canada contributed staff officers who worked at UNTAET Headquarters in Dili, East Timor.


Soldiers of the Royal 22e Régiment move equipment up from the beach landing point in Suai, East Timor. Photo by Cpl Colin Kelley, DND Photo.

The number of personnel committed peaked at 650 in late Oct and early Nov. The 280-strong reinforced infantry company (largely drawn from 3e Bataillon Royal 22e Régiment) was transferred to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) on 21 Feb 2000, bringing Canadian participation in INTERFET to a close.

The CBC website described the mission thusly:

The Royal 22nd's introduction to East Timor is not at all pleasant. True, there are fewer mortal dangers than in Korea or Bosnia, but the irritants are innumerable. The daytime brings scorching heat. The night brings mud, spiders and scorpions – and the troops are sleeping on the ground. Monsoon season is coming. And as reporter Mike Smith reveals...the communications lines are muddier than the terrain.

 

The Van Doos are part of an international security force called INTERFET, serving in a battalion of New Zealanders reporting to Australians. The Van Doos soldiers speak French among themselves. The locals speak Portuguese or any of 16 indigenous languages. The interpreters are Malaysian. Getting your point across can be just as difficult as surviving a night in a "hoochie" without a hammock.

Military Forces
 
Country Contribution
Argentina 50 troops.
Australia B Squadron, the 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment
Air support included, RAAF FA18, F111, FA18, PC9 and P3s.
2 x B707 of 33 Squadron
9 x C-130 of 36 and 37 Squadrons
15 x S-70A of 1st and 5th Aviation Regiments
Bell 206B-1s of 161(R) Squadron
UH-1Hs of 171(GS) Squadron
161 Recce Sqn
No 2 Airfield Defence Squadron (2AFDS) RAAF
2RAR
3rd Australian Brigade
3RAR
5th/7th RAR
Force Prep Unit
SAS
HMAS Adelaide
HMAS Anzac (Frigate)
HMAS Balikpapan (Heavy Landing Craft)
HMAS Brunei (landing craft)
HMAS Darwin
HMAS Farncomb (submarine, landed frogmen at Suai)
HMAS Jervis Bay (Catamaran)
HMAS Labuan
HMAS Success
HMAS Sydney
HMAS Tarakan
HMAS Tobruk (Heavy Lift)
HMAS Waller (submarine, escorted fleet through Timor Sea to Dili)
HMAS Westralia
Brazil 30 to 50 military police.
Canada 600 military personnel on a a six-month tour.
250 sailors from HMCS Protecteur Naval replenishment ship
250-strong light infantry company group largely from the 3rd Battalion, Royal 22e Régiment
Approximately 100 air force personnel with two CC-130 Hercules transport aircraft from 8 Wing Trenton.
Denmark ?
Egypt ?
Fiji 191 troops attached to New Zealand units
France 500 troops and a frigate to the region, also one field surgery, including 12 surgeons and two doctors.
3 x C-130
4 x Puma
FNS Vendemiaire (frigate), later relieved by FNS Prairial (frigate)
FNS Siroco (Dock landing Ship)
French Marines.
Germany Medical unit (100 troops)
Ireland ARW detachment numbering 30 personnel, known as the No. 1 Irish Contingent.
The Irish Component Headquarters will be supported by the National Support Element, (NSE).
Italy 600 military personnel, including tactical group of 200 paratroops, transport aircraft and amphibious naval unit on a vessel with hospital facilities, on-board helicopters and transport aircraft
Jordan Over 700 Jordanian troops arrived during Interfet and replaced Australian troops in the Oecussi enclave of East Timor in February 2000.
Kenya 1 Army Company
Medical unit (100 troops)
Malaysia Malaysia has said it will send a team of military officers to join the multinational force, after earlier refusing because of Australia's leading role.
Mozambique ?
Nepal 158 troops attached to NZ units at Suai, At least three troops killed.
New Zealand 5 Iroqois helicopters of No.3 squadron at Suai, East Timor.
Hercules and Boeing transport aircraft of No.40 Squadron provide regular re-supply flights to and from East Timor.
2 x C-130
RNZAF chartered a 747 in Sept ‘99.
3200 NZ military personnel served in ET divided into 6 Battalion Groups, with only one serving at a time, and rotating at 6 month intervals. (The force being made up from both the Regular and Territorial Forces of all service arms)
The NZSAS were also used in Timor.
NZ Supplied 19 Customs Officers for border control service in Timor.
NZ supplied over 45 Police and Prison Officers for service in Timor.
There were at least 12 Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries (MAF) staff seconded for quarantine duties in Timor.
A private Airline (Vincent Airline) supplied one aircraft and 6 crew for the transporting of military personnel between Timor and Darwin, Australia.
NZ supplied the following military ships -
   HMNZS Canterbury (Approx 250 crew).
   HMNZS Te Kaha (Approx 170 crew).
   HMNZS Endeavour (Approx 35 crew).
MV Edisongracht chartered by NZ to carry freight and equipment.
MV Edamgracht chartered by NZ to carry freight and equipment.
4 NZ peacekeepers lost their lives as a result of their service in Timor.
Norway Five officers.
Philippines 1,200 army engineers, medical and other support troops to the multinational peacekeeping force.
2 x C-130
Elements of Scout Ranger Regiment
Republic of Korea 400-stong infantry battalion to East Timor in what would be the first ever deployment of South Korean combat troops for peacekeeping operations abroad.
Singapore Medical detachment
1 x C-130
RSS Excellence (LST)
RSS Perseverance (LST)
RSS Intrepid (LST)
Sweden Civilian police officers and $1.2m in aid.
Thailand Ultimately to deploy more than 1,000 personnel, including combat troops, engineers, medics and technicians. Thai Major-General Songkitti Chakkrabhat is the mission's deputy commander.
United Kingdom
2 x C-130
1 x VC-10
HMS Glasgow
270 Gurkhas from 2 Royal Gurkha Rifles
Party of SBS troops.
United States 200 military personnel, half of whom will serve on the ground in East Timor, and support from Pacific Fleet. The US also transported troops from other nations and helped with logistics, communications and intelligence. 
1 x EP-3C based at RAAF Tindal
Members of the US Marines
US Marine Sea Stallion Helicopters
USS Belleau Wood (LHA 3)
USNS Kilauea (T-AE 26) ammunition ship. USS Mobile Bay (Cruiser)
USS Pelelieu
USS San Jose

Insignia

The Government of Australia established the INTERFET Medal for military personnel who participated in the mission lasting from Oct 1999 to Apr 2000.

The qualifying period of service is 30 days cumulative service in the area of operations, and the area of operations for CF personnel included East Timor, the sea adjacent to East Timor to a distance of 12 nautical miles; and the CF staging base at Darwin, Australia.

Approximately 760 have been awarded to members of the Canadian Forces. The ribbon colours are drawn from white, green and blue representing the [Australian] Navy, Army and Air Force, but having dual representations of:

  • white for peace

  • blue for the sea surrounding East Timor

  • green for the regrowth of a new nation

  • The red stripe represented the turbulent past of East Timor


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