History

Wars & Campaigns

Boer War
First World War

►►Western Front

►►►Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

►►Allied Offensive: 1916

►►►Allied Offensives: 1917

►►►German Offensive: 1918

►►►Advance to Victory: 1918

►►Siberia
Second World War
►►War Against Japan

►►Italian Campaign

►►►Sicily

►►►Southern Italy

►►►The Sangro and Moro

►►►Battles of the FSSF

►►►Cassino

►►►Liri Valley

►►►Advance to Florence

►►►Gothic Line

►►►Winter Lines
►►North-West Europe

►►►Normandy
►►►Southern France
►►►Channel Ports

►►►Scheldt
►►►Nijmegen Salient

►►►Rhineland

►►►Final Phase
Korean War
Cold War
Gulf War

Operations 

GAUNTLET Aug 1941

(Spitsbergen)

HUSKY Jul 1943

 (Sicily)

COTTAGE Aug 1943

 (Kiska)

TIMBERWOLF Oct 1943

(Italy)

OVERLORD Jun 1944

(Normandy)

MARKET-GARDEN Sep 44

(Arnhem)

BERLIN Nov 1944

(Nijmegen)

VERITABLE Feb 1945

(Rhineland)

Battle Honours

Boer War

►Paardeberg

18 Feb 00

First World War
Western Front
Trench Warfare: 1914-1916

Ypres, 1915

22 Apr-25 May 15

Gravenstafel

22-23 Apr 15

St. Julien

24 Apr-4 May 15

Frezenberg

8-13 May 15

Bellewaarde

24-25 May 15

Festubert, 1915

15-25 May 15

Mount Sorrel

2-13 Jun 16

Allied Offensive: 1916

►Somme, 1916

1 Jul-18 Nov 16

►Albert

.1-13 Jul 16

►Bazentin

.14-17 Jul 16

►Pozieres

.23 Jul-3 Sep 16

►Guillemont

.3-6 Sep 16

►Ginchy

.9 Sep 16

Flers-Courcelette

15-22 Sep 16

Thiepval

26-29 Sep 16

►Le Transloy

. 1-18 Oct 16

Ancre Heights

1 Oct-11 Nov 16

Ancre, 1916

13-18 Nov 16

Allied Offensives: 1917

►Arras 1917

8 Apr-4 May 17

Vimy, 1917

.9-14 Apr 17

Arleux

28-29 Apr 17

►Scarpe, 1917

.3-4 May17

►Hill 70

.15-25 Aug 17

►Messines, 1917

.7-14 Jun 17

►Ypres, 1917

..31 Jul-10 Nov 17

►Pilckem

31 Jul-2 Aug 17

►Langemarck, 1917

.16-18 Aug 17

►Menin Road

.20-25 Sep 17

►Polygon Wood

26 Sep-3 Oct 17

►Broodseinde

.4 Oct 17

►Poelcapelle

.9 Oct 17

►Passchendaele

.12 Oct 17

►Cambrai, 1917

20 Nov-3 Dec 17

German Offensive: 1918

►Somme, 1918

.21 Mar-5 Apr 18

►St. Quentin

.21-23 Mar 18

►Bapaume, 1918

.24-25 Mar 18

►Rosieres

.26-27 Mar 18

►Avre

.4 Apr 18

►Lys

.9-29 Apr 18

►Estaires

.9-11 Apr 18

►Messines, 1918

.10-11 Apr 18

►Bailleul

.13-15 Apr 18

►Kemmel

.17-19 Apr 18

Advance to Victory: 1918

Amiens

8-11 Aug 18

►Arras, 1918

.26 Aug-3 Sep 18

►Scarpe, 1918

26-30 Aug 18.

►Drocourt-Queant

.2-3 Sep 18

►Hindenburg Line

.12 Sep-9 Oct 18

►Canal du Nord

.27 Sep-2 Oct 18

►St. Quentin Canal .29 Sep-2 Oct 18
►Epehy

3-5 Oct 18

►Cambrai, 1918

.8-9 Oct 18

►Valenciennes

.1-2 Nov 18

►Sambre

.4 Nov 18

►Pursuit to Mons .28 Sep-11Nov

Second World War

War Against Japan

South-East Asia

Hong Kong

 8-25 Dec 41

Italian Campaign

Battle of Sicily

Landing in Sicily 

   9-12 Jul 43

Grammichele 

15 Jul 43

Piazza Armerina

16-17 Jul 43

Valguarnera

17-19 Jul 43

Assoro 

  20-22 Jul 43

Leonforte

 21-22 Jul 43

Agira

24-28 Jul 43

Adrano 

29 Jul-7 Aug 43

Catenanuova

29-30 Jul 43

Regalbuto

29 Jul-3 Aug 43

Centuripe

  31 Jul-3 Aug 43

Troina Valley

 2-6 Aug 43

Pursuit to Messina

 2-17 Aug 43

 Southern Italy

Landing at Reggio

 3 Sep 43

Potenza 19-20 Sep 43
Motta Montecorvino 1-3 Oct 43
Termoli 3-6 Oct 43
Monte San Marco 6-7 Oct 43
Gambatesa 7-8 Oct 43
Campobasso 11-14 Oct 43
Baranello 17-18 Oct 43
Colle d'Anchise 22-24 Oct 43
Torella 24-27 Oct 43

The Sangro and Moro

The Sangro

19 Nov-3 Dec 43

Castel di Sangro

.23-24 Nov 43

The Moro

5-7 Dec 43

San Leonardo

8-9 Dec 43

The Gully

..10-19 Dec 43

Casa Berardi

 ..14-15 Dec 43

Ortona

20-28 Dec 43

San Nicola-San

.31 Dec 43

Tommaso

.
Point 59/ 29 Dec 43-

Torre Mucchia

4 Jan 44

Battles of the FSSF
Monte Camino

.5 Nov-9 Dec 43

Monte la Difensa-

2-8 Dec 43

 Monte la Remetanea

.
Hill 720

25 Dec 43

Monte Majo

3-8 Jan 44.

Radicosa

4 Jan 44

Monte Vischiataro

8 Jan 44

Anzio

22 Jan-22 May 44

Rome

.22 May-4 Jun 44

Advance

.22 May-22 Jun 44

to the Tiber

.
►Monte Arrestino

25 May 44

►Rocca Massima

27 May 44

►Colle Ferro

2 Jun 44

Cassino
►Cassino II

11-18 May 44

►Gustav Line

11-18 May 44

►Sant' Angelo in

13 May 44

Teodice

.
►Pignataro

14-15 May 44

Liri Valley
Liri Valley

18-30 May 44

►Hitler Line

18-24 May 44

►Aquino

18-24 May 44

►Melfa Crossing

24-25 May 44

►Ceprano

26-27 May 44

►Torrice Crossroads

30 May 44

Advance to Florence
Advance

17 Jul-10 Aug 44

to Florence

.
Trasimene Line

20-30 Jun 44

Sanfatucchio

20-21 Jun 44

Arezzo

4-17 Jul 44

Cerrone

25 - 31 Aug 44

Gothic Line
►Gothic Line

25 Aug-22 Sep 44

►Monteciccardo

27-28 Aug 44

►Montecchio

30-31 Aug 44

►Point 204 (Pozzo Alto)

31 Aug 44

►Monte Luro

1 Sep 44

►Borgo Santa Maria

1 Sep 44

►Tomba di Pesaro

1-2 Sep 44

►Coriano

3-15 Sep 44

Winter Lines
►Rimini Line

14-21 Sep 44

►San Martino-

14-18 Sep 44

San Lorenzo

.
►San Fortunato

18-20 Sep 44

►Casale

23-25 Sep 44

►Sant' Angelo

11-15 Sep 44

 in Salute

.
►Bulgaria Village

13-14 Sep 44

►Cesena

15-20 Sep 44

►Pisciatello

16-19 Sep 44

►Savio Bridgehead

20-23 Sep 44

►Monte La Pieve

13-19 Oct 44

►Monte Spaduro

19-24 Oct 44

►Monte San Bartolo

11-14 Nov 44

►Lamone Crossing

2-13 Dec 44

►Capture of Ravenna

3-4 Dec 44

►Naviglio Canal

12-15 Dec 44

►Fosso Vecchio

16-18 Dec 44

►Fosso Munio

19-21 Dec 44

►Conventello-

2-6 Jan 45

Comacchio

.
►Granarolo

3-5 Jan 44

Northwest Europe
Dieppe

19 Aug 42

Battle of Normandy
Normandy Landing

6 Jun 44

Authie

7 Jun 44

Putot-en-Bessin

8 Jun 44

Bretteville

8-9 Jun 44

       -l'Orgueilleuse .
Le Mesnil-Patry

11 Jun 44

Carpiquet

4-5 Jul 44

Caen

4-18 Jul 44

The Orne (Buron)

8-9 Jul 44

Bourguébus Ridge

18-23 Jul 44

Faubourg-de-

18-19 Jul 44

       Vaucelles .
St. André-sur-Orne

19-23 Jul 44

Maltôt

22-23 Jul 44

Verrières Ridge-Tilly--

25 Jul 44

         la-Campagne .
Falaise

7-22 Aug 44

►Falaise Road

7-9 Aug 44

►Quesnay Road

10-11 Aug 44

Clair Tizon

11-13 Aug 44

►The Laison

14-17 Aug 44

►Chambois

18-22 Aug 44

►St. Lambert-sur-

19-22 Aug 44

       Dives

.

Dives Crossing

17-20 Aug 44

Forêt de la Londe

27-29 Aug 44

The Seine, 1944

25-28 Aug 44

Southern France
Southern France

15-28 Aug 44

Channel Ports
Dunkirk, 1944

8-15 Sep 44

Le Havre

1-12 Sep 44

Moerbrugge

8-10 Sep 44

Moerkerke

13-14 Sep 44

Boulogne, 1944

17-22 Sep 44

Calais, 1944

25 Sep-1 Oct 44

Wyneghem

21-22 Sep 44

Antwerp-Turnhout

   24-29 Sep 44

Canal

.

The Scheldt

The Scheldt

1 Oct-8 Nov 44

Leopold Canal

6-16 Oct-44

►Woensdrecht

1-27 Oct 44

Savojaards Platt

9-10 Oct 44

Breskens Pocket

11 Oct -3 Nov 44

►The Lower Maas

20 Oct -7 Nov 44

►South Beveland

 24-31 Oct 44

Walcheren

31 Oct -4 Nov 44

Causeway

.

Nijmegen Salient
Ardennes

Dec 44-Jan 45

Kapelsche Veer

31 Dec 44-

.

21Jan 45

The Roer

16-31 Jan 45

Rhineland
The Rhineland

8 Feb-10 Mar 45

►The Reichswald

8-13 Feb 45

►Waal Flats

8-15 Feb 45

►Moyland Wood

14-21 Feb 45

►Goch-Calcar Road

19-21 Feb 45

►The Hochwald

26 Feb-

.

4 Mar 45

►Veen

6-10 Mar 45

►Xanten

8-9 Mar 45

Final Phase
The Rhine

23 Mar-1 Apr 45

►Emmerich-Hoch

28 Mar-1 Apr 45

Elten

.
►Twente Canal

2-4 Apr 45

Zutphen

6-8 Apr 45

Deventer

8-11 Apr 45

Arnhem, 1945

12-14 Apr 45

Apeldoorn

11-17 Apr 45

Groningen

13-16 Apr 45

Friesoythe

14 Apr 45

►Ijselmeer

15-18 Apr 45

Küsten Canal

17-24 Apr 45

Wagenborgen

21-23 Apr 45

Delfzijl Pocket

23 Apr-2 May 45

Leer

28-29 Apr 45

Bad Zwischenahn

23 Apr-4 May 45

Oldenburg

27 Apr-5 May 45

Korean War
Kapyong

21-25 Apr 51

Domestic Missions

FLQ Crisis

International Missions

ICCS            Vietnam 1973

MFO                 Sinai 1986-

Peacekeeping

UNMOGIP

India 1948-1979

UNTSO

 Israel 1948-    ....

UNEF

Egypt 1956-1967

UNOGIL

Lebanon 1958    ....

ONUC

 Congo 1960-1964

UNYOM

Yemen 1963-1964

UNTEA

W. N. Guinea 1963-1964

UNIFCYP

 Cyprus 1964-    ....

DOMREP

D. Republic 1965-1966

UNIPOM

Kashmir 1965-1966

UNEFME

Egypt 1973-1979

UNDOF

Golan 1974-    ....

UNIFIL

 Lebanon 1978    ....

UNGOMAP

Afghanistan 1988-90

UNIIMOG

Iran-Iraq 1988-1991

UNTAG

Namibia 1989-1990

ONUCA

C. America 1989-1992

UNIKOM

Kuwait 1991    ....

MINURSO

W. Sahara 1991    ....

ONUSAL

El Salvador 1991    ....

UNAMIC

Cambodia 1991-1992

UNAVEM II

Angola 1991-1997

UNPROFOR

Yugosla. 1992-1995

UNTAC

Cambodia 1992-1993

UNOSOM

Somalia 1992-1993

ONUMOZ

Mozambiq. 1993-1994

UNOMUR

 Rwanda 1993    ....

UNAMIR

Rwanda 1993-1996

UNMIH

Haiti 1993-1996

UNMIBH

Bosnia/Herz.1993-1996

UNMOP

Prevlaka 1996-2001

UNSMIH

Haiti 1996-1997

MINUGUA

Guatemala 1994-1997

UNTMIH

Haiti 1997    ....

MIPONUH

 Haiti 1997    ....

MINURCA

C.Afr.Rep. 1998-1999

INTERFET

E. Timor 1999-2000

UNAMSIL

Sie. Leone 1999-2005

UNTAET

E. Timor 1999-2000

Exercises

 

United Nations Protection Force

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission involving Canadians from 1992 to 1995.1 The strength of the mission in March 1995 was 38,599 military personnel which included 684 UN military observers, 803 civilian police, 2.017 civilian staff and 2,615 local staff. From 1991, over 16,500 Canadian military personnel of all branches deployed to the Balkans as part of UNPROFOR.2 During the course of the mission 167 fatalities were incurred, including 3 military observers and 159 military personnel.3  Of the latter, 11 were Canadian soldiers.4

Background

Yugoslavia was a multi-ethnic nation created in the aftermath of the First World War. The disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire resulted in several constituent republics (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro) with distinct identities. Following the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and declarations of independence by Slovenia and Croatia, tensions erupted in 1991. Each republic contained substantial minority populations and "the stage was set for years of ethnic and religious conflict."5

UN Mandate

UNPROFOR was established in February 1992 as an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslavian crisis. The role of the UN troops was to ensure that areas designated as "UN Protected Areas" (UNPA) became and remained demilitarized and that all persons residing in these areas were protected from fear of armed attack. The role of UN police monitors was to ensure that local police forces carried out their duties without discriminating against persons of any nationality or abusing any human rights. The force also assisted the humanitarian agencies of the UN in the return of all displaced persons who so desired.

There were several extensions of the original UNPROFOR covering the following purposes: reopening of the Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes; establishing a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport; protection of convoys of released detainees in Bosnia and Herzegovina as requested by the International Committee of the Red Cross; monitoring arrangements for the complete withdrawal of the Yugoslavian Army from Croatia; the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula and the removal of heavy weapons from neighbouring areas of Croatia and Montenegro (Res 779,1992); monitoring compliance with the ban on military flights (Resolution 781,1992); and the establishment of the United Nations presence in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

UNPROFOR also monitored the implementation of a cease-fire agreement requested by the Bosnian Government and Bosnian-Croat Forces in February 1994. In addition, UNPROFOR monitored cease-fire arrangements, negotiated between the Bosnian Government and Bosnian Serb forces, which became effective on 1 January 1995.

On 31 March 1995, the Security Council decided to restructure UNPROFOR, replacing it with three separate but interrelated peacekeeping operations: UNCRO (United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia), UNPREDEP (United Nations Preventive Deployment Force) under the joint theatre headquarters known as UNPF (United Nations Peace Forces) located in Zagreb. Eventually, following positive developments in the former Yugoslavia and the establishment of two new United Nations Missions in Bosnia -Herzegovina and Croatia, UNPF-HQ was phased out in January 1996.6


Canadian soldiers of UNPROFOR perform a medical evacuation in the former Yugoslavia. (Canadian Forces Photo Unit via LAC)

Canadian Military Involvement

Approximately 860 Canadian Forces personnel deployed to the Balkans with UNPROFOR in the spring of 1992 as Operation HARMONY, followed by a second deployment of 800 in September of that year. For three years, from the fall of 1992 to the fall of 1995 there were approximately 1,600 Canadians in the Balkans at any one time, as part of UNPROFOR, the United Nations Peace Forces Headquarters (UNPF-HQ) and (briefly) UNCRO.7

The UN Protection Force was initially formed to protect civilians and demilitarize several UN protected areas in Croatia, but its mandate and mission extended into the wider region. Virtually every Canadian infantry battalion and armoured regiment rotated through tours of duty in Croatia, Kosovo and Bosnia & Herzegovina. Canada also deployed naval resources in the Adriatic Sea to assist the UN in naval blockades of arms shipments to the region as well as air resources to enforce the UN’s no-fly zones and the arms blockade.8

The third Canadian Battle Group to serve departed for the former Yugoslavia in March 1993.9 The BG was structured on the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and included 875 soldiers, including a significant proportion of reservists. They operated initially in a UN Protected Area in northwest Croatia, intervening in raiding operations by both Croats and Serbs. In September 1993, UNPROFOR commander General Jean Cot of the French Army moved 2 PPCLI to Sector South, recognizing the professionalism the Canadians had displayed in their sector. The Erdut Agreement in Sector South was tenuously being recognized and the Serbian population was at risk of Croatian military operations. The Battle of Medak Pocket occurred shortly after their redeployment.10

Brigadier General Lewis MacKenzie served with UNPROFOR as Chief of Staff from February 1992 to April 1992, when he was promoted Major-General; and from May 1992 to August 1992 as Commander, Sector Sarajevo. Canada also provided the Deputy Theatre Commander, UNPROFOR, from September 1992 to 31 March 1995, and the Deputy Theatre Commander, UNPF from April 1995 to January 1996.

Units deployed included battalions of the three Regular Force infantry regiments as well as armoured and engineer regiments.

  • The Royal Canadian Regiment
  • Royal 22e Régiment
  • Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
  • Various Military Observers and RCMP
  • Armoured and engineer regiments

Medak Pocket

Lieutenant-Colonel Jim Calvin's 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry deployed to an area known as the Medak Pocket in September 1993. The unit came under mortar and artillery fire as they passed through Serbian lines, and were forced to take up defensive positions while waiting for a ceasefire between the combatant forces. International pressure, as well as efforts by United Nations personnel and Lieutenant-Colonel Calvin personally resulted in a ceasefire agreement on 13 September, and Croat forces agreed to return to their 8 September positions. Two days later 2 PPCLI moved forward with two companies of French mechanized infantry to enforce the ceasefire.

However, the Croatian forces did not withdraw. As the Canadians and French moved forward, they were attacked by Croatian forces and forced to return fire to defend themselves. The fighting raged on for 15 hours, into the early morning of September 16. Under conditions of extreme peril and hazard, facing enemy artillery, small arms and heavy machine-gun fire as well as anti-tank and anti-personnel mines, the Canadian and French soldiers dug in, held their ground, and drove the Croatian forces back. During the course of this battle four Canadian soldiers were wounded. The Croatian general requested a meeting with Lieutenant-Colonel Calvin for the evening of September 15, at which it was agreed that the Croatians would move at noon the following day.

On the morning of September 16, smoke could be seen rising from several villages behind Croatian lines while explosions and bursts of automatic rifle fire could be heard as the Canadians and French again moved forward. The soldiers encountered a Croatian roadblock protected by a hastily laid minefield, a T-72 tank and anti-tank missiles. It became clear the Croatians were resisting the Canadian advance.

With an intense standoff ensuing, Lieutenant-Colonel Calvin eventually called forward a group of international reporters who had arrived at the scene, and pointed out to them that the Croatian army commander was not abiding by the terms of the ceasefire agreement and that they were hiding evidence of violence affecting civilians. The appearance of the reporters had the desired effect and Croatian forces backed down, allowing the battalion to enter the zone. The exemplary actions of the 2nd Battalion caused the Croatian Army to cease their ongoing tactics of violence affecting civilians, without question saving many civilian lives.

In the days that followed, the members of the 2nd Battalion gathered evidence of violence affecting civilians. Some of this evidence was used in the international criminal tribunals investigating war crimes and crimes against humanity during the wars in the former Yugoslavia.
11

The events at Medak have been interpreted differently following the Yugoslavian Civil War. In Canada, the engagement was little reported in Canada despite the fact the fighting at Medak was the largest battle Canadian soldiers had been involved in since the end of the Korean War. Recognition for those that participated came in 2002, when the Governor General inaugurated a new form of unit award. The Commander in Chief's Unit Citation was bestowed upon the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.12

The battle is not recognized by Croatia and Croatians who served in the region deny that fighting took place with Canadian troops.

The confrontation ended following a meeting between the chiefs of the Croatian operations and the heads of the UNPROFOR in Gospic. There had reportedly been 27 losses on the Croatian side, a figure which was, however, not recognized by Zagreb authorities. In the face of pressure, the Croatians finally withdrew their troops from the Medak Ridge, not without having made use of different manoeuvres of obstruction and intimidation in order to slow down the advance of UN troops. That delay allowed them to carry out their sorry undertaking: the systematic destruction of occupied Serbian villages. In spite of signs of ethnic cleansing, UN forces were unable to intervene because they had to respect the arrangements made with the Croatians. Despite that failure, the subsequent inquiry by the peace forces at least made it possible to charge three high-ranking officers of the Croatian army, thus striking a hard blow to the count(r)y’s reputation.13

Insignia

Ninety days service with the mission from 1 Mar 1992 to 19 Dec 1995 entitled a Canadian serviceman to the UNPROFOR Medal. The ribbon consisted of 9 stripes: UN blue (2.5mm), light green (5mm), UN blue (3mm), white (1mm), red centre (8mm), white (1mm), UN blue (3mm), dark brown (5mm), and UN blue (2.5mm).

Awards to Canadians included:

  • 1,200 in 1992
  • 2,222 in 1993, not including 225 RCMP awards to end of 1993.
  • Total in 1994-95 unknown.

Members who served with Operation SHARP GUARD in the Adriatic Sea, and AWACS crews based out of Germany during Operation DENY FLIGHT counted their service towards the NATO medal for the Former Yugoslavia instead.14

Fatalities

Eleven Canadian soldiers died during their service with UNPROFOR.15

Captain James P. DeCOSTE, CD 2nd Bn, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry 18 Sep 1993
Sergeant J. Denis A. GAREAU, CD Logistics Branch (att Can Con Support Unit) 17 Aug 1993
Sergeant Cornelius M. RALPH, CD 22 Field Squadron (att 4 CER) 17 Aug 1992
Master Corporal Mark R. ISFELD 1 Combat Engineer Regiment 21 June 1994
Master Corporal Stephane L.P. LANGEVIN 12e Régiment blindé du Canada 29 Nov 1993
Master Corporal John W. TERNAPOLSKI 2nd Bn, Royal Canadian Regiment 25 Mar 1993
Corporal Jean-Marc H. BECHARD 2nd Bn, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry 6 Aug 1993
Corporal David GALVIN Sherbrooke Hussars (att 12e RBC) 29 Nov 1993
Corporal Daniel GUNTHER 2nd Bn, Royal 22e Regiment 18 Jun 1993
Corporal Joseph F.Y. ROUSSEAU 12e Régiment blindé du Canada 25 Sep 1995
Private Kirk D. COOPER 3rd Bn, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry 6 Jun 1994

Notes

  1. United Nations UNPROFOR page: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unprof_p.htm

  2. DND Backgrounder on the Battle of Medak Pocket: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-battle-of-medak-pocket/hljg3bso

  3. United Nations UNPROFOR page: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unprof_p.htm

  4. UN Peacekeepers Roll of Honour http://www.members.shaw.ca/kcic1/peacekeepers.html
  5. DND Backgrounder on the Battle of Medak Pocket: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-battle-of-medak-pocket/hljg3bso
  6. Canadian Forces UNPROFOR Medal page: http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhr-ddhr/chc-tdh/chart-tableau-eng.asp?ref=UNPROFOR
  7. Canadian Forces UNPROFOR Medal page: http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhr-ddhr/chc-tdh/chart-tableau-eng.asp?ref=UNPROFOR
  8. DND Backgrounder on the Battle of Medak Pocket: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-battle-of-medak-pocket/hljg3bso
  9. Thank you to LCol Sean Hackett, who as a platoon commander led 5 Platoon, "B" Company of 3 PPCLI during Op HARMONY from Sep 1992 to Apr 1993 for his correction to this page. He notes that "(d)espite the clear and well-deserved praise for such an historic tour (i.e. 2 PPCLI) it does not change the fact that this BG was the third BG into theatre (ROTO 2). The first BG to rotate into theatre from Canada was the 3 PPCLI (Battle Group) from Victoria, in relief of 4 CMBG ROTO 0 elements." (Correspondence to webmaster 23 Feb 2017 in response to the webmaster's inaccurate reporting of 2 PPCLI as being the first BG).
  10. DND Backgrounder on the Battle of Medak Pocket: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-battle-of-medak-pocket/hljg3bso
  11. Ottawa Citizen story: http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=bf494a0f-2b8a-4b31-9b5a-a71ddf1f78a2 Map from Wikipedia, accessed online at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Medak_Pocket#mediaviewer/File:Medak_pocket_battle_map.png
  12. DND Backgrounder on the Battle of Medak Pocket: http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/news/article.page?doc=the-battle-of-medak-pocket/hljg3bso
  13. Légaré, Kathia and Lisa Tanguay "Use of Force by UN Peacekeepers: Application of the Medak Agreement in September 1993", in Canadian Army Journal, Vol 9 No 3 accessed online at http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no3/10-legare-eng.asp
  14. Canadian Forces UNPROFOR Medal page: http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhr-ddhr/chc-tdh/chart-tableau-eng.asp?ref=UNPROFOR
  15. UN Peacekeepers Roll of Honour, Ibid

 

 


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