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Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1900-13 | 1914-39 | 1940-63 | 1964-99


Infantry Regiments
1900-20 | 1921-36 | 1937-50 | 1951-99

Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1st Hussars
1st APC Regiment
1st British Columbia Horse
2nd Dragoons
2nd/10th Dragoons
3rd Prince of Wales' Cdn Dragoons
4th Hussars
4th Hussars of Canada
IV PLDG
5th Dragoons
5th Princess Louise Drag. Gds
6th Duke of Connaught's R.C.H.
7th Hussars
7th/11th Hussars
8th Princess Louise's NB Hussars
8th Cdn Hussars (Princess Louise's)
9th (Grey's) Horse
9th Toronto Light Horse
9th Mississauga Horse
10th Brant Dragoons
10th Queen's Own Cdn Hussars
11th Hussars
12th Manitoba Dragoons

12e Régiment Blindé du Canada

13th Scottish Light Dragoons
14th Canadian Hussars
14th King's Canadian Hussars
15th Light Horse
16th Light Horse
17th Duke of York's Royal Can. H.
17th PEI Recce
18th Mounted Rifles
19th Alberta Dragoons
19th The Alberta Mounted Rifles
20th Border Horse
21st Alberta Hussars
22nd Saskatchewan Horse
22nd Saskatchewan Light Horse
23rd Alberta Rangers
24th Grey's Horse
25th Brant Dragoons
26th Canadian Dragoons
27th Light Horse
28th New Brunswick Dragoons
29th Light Horse
30th Regiment (BC Horse)
31st Regiment (BC Horse)
32nd Light Horse
32nd Manitoba Horse
33rd Vaudreuil & Soulanges Huss.
34th Fort Garry Horse
35th Central Alberta Horse
36th PEI Light Horse
Algonquin Regiment
British Columbia Dragoons
British Columbia Mounted Rifles
British Columbia Regiment
Border Horse
Calgary Regiment
Canadian Mounted Rifles
Duke of York's Royal Cdn Hussars
Elgin Regiment
Fort Garry Horse
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Governor General's Body Guard
Governor General's Horse Guards
Halifax Rifles
King's Own Calgary Regt.
Lord Strathcona's Horse
Manitoba Dragoons
Manitoba Horse
Mississauga Horse
Ontario Mounted Rifles
Princess Louise Dragoon Guards
Queen's Own Canadian Hussars
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
Régt de Hull
Régt de Trois-Riviéres
Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles
Saskatchewan Dragoons
Sherbrooke Regiment
South Alberta Light Horse
Strathcona's Horse
Toronto Light Horse
Toronto Mounted Rifles
Windsor Regiment

Infantry Regiments 1900-1919
Dawson Rifles
GGFG
Kootenay Rifles
PPCLI
Royal Canadian Regiment
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CEF Battalions 1914-1920

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Infantry Regiments 1920-2000
1st British Columbia Regiment
1st BC Regt (D. of Conn.'s Own)
Algonquin Regiment
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Black Watch (RHR) of Canada
BC Regt (D. of Conn's Own Rifles)
Calgary Highlanders
Calgary Regiment
Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
Canadian Airborne Regiment
Canadian Scottish Regiment
 Canadian Fusiliers (C of L Regt)
Canadian Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards
Cape Breton Highlanders
Carleton and York Regiment
Elgin Regiment
Essex Scottish
Essex & Kent Scottish
 Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Fusiliers Mont Royal
Fusiliers du St. Laurent
48th Highlanders of Canada
Gov Gen Foot Guards
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Halifax Rifles
Hastings and Prince Edward Regt
Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Highland Light Infantry of Canada
Irish Fusiliers
Irish Fusiliers of Can (Vancouver R.)
Irish Regiment
Irish Regiment of Canada
Kent Regiment
King's Own Rifles of Canada
Lake Superior Regiment
Lincoln and Welland Regiment
Loyal Edmonton Regiment
Lorne Scots
Midland Regiment
Mississauga Regiment
New Brunswick Rangers
New Brunswick Scottish
North Nova Scotia Highlanders
North Shore (New Brunswick) Regt
North Waterloo Regiment
Oxford Rifles
Perth Regiment
Peterborough Rangers
Pictou Highlanders
PPCLI
Prince Albert and Battleford Voltrs
Princess Louise Fusiliers (MG)
Prince Rupert Regiment
Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
Queen's Rangers (1st Am. Regt.)
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
 Régiment de la Chaudière
 Régiment de Chateauguay
Régiment de Levis
 Régiment de Maisonneuve
Régiment de Montmagmy
 Régiment de Saguenay
Régiment de St. Hyacinthe
 Régiment de Québec
Regina Rifle Regiment
Rocky Mountain Rangers
Royal 22e Regt
Royal Canadian Regiment
Royal Highlanders of Canada
Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Royal Regiment of Canada
Royal Regina Rifles
Royal Hamilton Light Infantry
Royal Montreal Regiment
Royal New Brunswick Regiment
Royal Newfoundland Regiment
Royal Rifles of Canada
Royal Scots of Canada
Royal Winnipeg Rifles
Saskatoon Light Infantry
Scots Fusiliers of Canada
S, D and G Highlanders
Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
South Alberta Regiment
South New Brunswick Regiment
South Saskatchewan Regiment
Toronto Regiment
Toronto Scottish Regiment
Vancouver Regiment
Victoria Rifles of Canada
Voltigeurs de Quebec
Waterloo Regiment
Westminster Regiment
West Nova Scotia Regiment
West Toronto Regiment
Winnipeg Grenadiers
Winnipeg Light Infantry
York Rangers
 Yukon Regiment

16th Battalion, CEF

The 16th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force was a unit raised for service in the First World War.

History

The 16th Battalion was organized in Valcartier Camp in accordance with Camp Order 241 of 2 September 1914.1

The battalion was composed of recruits from Victoria and Vancouver (B.C.), Winnipeg (Manitoba) and Hamilton (Ontario) and was initially commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel R.G.E. Leckie. The unit embarked for overseas from Quebec City on  30 September 1914 aboard S.S. Andania and disembarked in the U.K. on 14 October 1914 with a strength of 47 officers, 1111 other ranks.

The unit moved to France on 7 February 1915 as a battalion of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade, a component of the (1st) Canadian Division.

The unit was eventually reinforced by the 14th Canadian Reserve Battalion and later the 11th Canadian Reserve Battalion.

At the conclusion of the war, the battalion returned to England on 27 March 1919, and returned home to Canada on 4 May 1919, with official demobilization following on 8 May 1919. Disbandment occurred by General Order 149 of 15 September 1920

16th Battalion, CEF

Organized: 2 September 1914
Initial Strength: 47 officers, 1111 other ranks
Service: Component of the 3rd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division in France and Flanders.
Disbanded: G.O. 149/1920 eff 15 September 1920
Perpetuated by: The Canadian Scottish Regiment

The battalion had a goat named Billy Mackenzie as a mascot and published two newsletters, "The Brazier" (15 Feb 1916 - 1 April 1917) and "Canadian Scottish".2 Battalion brass, bugle and pipe bands also existed. The influence of the 48th Highlanders was evident in dress and traditions, and the unit was a kilted battalion wearing the Davidson tartan.3

The battalion was affiliated with the 48th, 67th, 88th, 103rd and 143rd Battalions, and after the war officially perpetuated by The Canadian Scottish Regiment. Their colours had been transferred to the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders on 17 July 1919.

Four soldiers of the battalion were awarded the Victoria Cross:

  • Piper James Cleland Richardson, 8 October 1916 (Regina Trench)

  • Private William Johnstone Milne, 9 April 1917 (Vimy Ridge)

  • Lieutenant-Colonel Cyrus Wesley Peck, DSO, 2 September 1918 (Cagnigourt)

  • Lance Corporal William Henry Metcalfe, MM, 4 September 1918 (Arras)

The battalion was raised from four Highland regiments of the pre-war Canadian Militia and initially clad four companies in the tartans of those regiments:

  • No. 1 Company: Gordon tartan (50th Gordon Highlanders of Canada)

  • No. 2 Company: Mackenzie tartan (72nd Seaforth Highlanders of Canada)

  • No. 3 Company: Cameron of Erracht tartan (79th Cameron Highlanders of Canada)

  • No. 4 Company: Government tartan (91st Highlanders of Canada)

The battalion adopted Mackenzie tartan kilts after arrival in the United Kingdom for the entire battalion. Stewart notes that the battalion's pipe band was the "champion pipe band of the Canadian Corps" with 25 pipers and 16 drummers.

Perpetuated by The Canadian Scottish Regiment.

Insignia

In 1914, there had been little time to adopt distinctive unit badges for the hastily assembled battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. As many battalions were drawn from men from several of the pre-war Militia regiments, there was a desire to avoid using existing badges and forming associations with those existing units, in favour of creating new identities - the General Officer Commanding the 1st Canadian Contingent (later 1st Canadian Division) is quoted as saying sometime in October or November of 1914 "there must be distinctive badges for each unit."4 Until unit badges were approved and issued, a mixture of pre-war Militia badges and maple-leaf pattern General Service badges were seen.

Metal cap and collar badges were also worn on service dress.

In mid-1916, cloth "battle-patches" were added to the sleeves of the Service Dress and greatcoat. The 1st Division was distinguished by a red rectangle, 3 inches wide by 2 inches tall, worn on each upper arm. The 16th Battalion was further distinguished by a blue square worn above the rectangle, the blue indicating the 3rd Brigade, and the square indicating the junior battalion in the brigade. More information on formation patches can be found in the article on the organization of the division.

Metal cap and collar badges were also worn on service dress.

Battle Honours

Ypres 1915, 17

St. Julien
Mount Sorrel

Pozieres
Ancre Heights

Arras 1917, '18

Arleux

Hill 70
Amiens
Hindenburg Line
Pursuit to Mons

Gravenstafel
Festubert, 1915
Somme, 1916
Thiepval

Ancre 1916

Vimy, 1917

Scarpe, 1917, '18

Passchendaele
Drocourt-Quéant

Canal du Nord
France and Flanders, 1915-18

 

Notes

  1. Guide to Sources, p.89, (copy in RG24, vol. 1258, file HQ 593-2-1, pt. 1).

  2. Ibid, which references RG24, vol. 1760, file DHS 10-37; vol. 1845, file GAQ 11-22) RG 9III, vol. 6077

  3. Stewart, p.8

  4. Harper, Joseph A Source of Pride: Regimental Badges and Titles in the Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919 (Service Publications, Ottawa, ON, 1999) ISBN 0-9699845-8-8 p.5

References

  • Love, David W. A Call to Arms: The Organization and Administration of Canada's Military in World War One (Bunker to Bunker Books, Calgary, AB, 1999) ISBN 1894255-03-8

  • Stewart, Charles H. Overseas: The Lineages and Insignia of the Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919 (Little & Stewart, Toronto, ON, 1970)

  • Guide to Sources Relating to Units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force Infantry Battalions (Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, ON, 2012)

Archival Holdings

 

The following holdings at Library and Archives Canada may be useful for further research on this unit:

  • DHS file

    • RG 24, vol. 1904, file DHS 5-7-12

  • Review of battalion history by Army Quarterly

    • RG 24, vol. 1828, file GAQ 7-16

  • Special badge

    • RG 24, vol. 1849, file GAQ 13-2

  • Designation

    • RG 24, vol. 1846, file GAQ 11-31

  • Special honours

    • RG 24, vol. 6422, file HQ 216-10

  • Records of personnel

    • RG 9 III-A-2, vol. 356, file 48

  • Promotions

    • RG 9 III-B-1, vol. 980, file P-30-3

  • Promotions, appointments

    • RG 9 III-B-1, vol. 984, file P-88-3

  • Clothing and equipment

    • RG 9 III-C-1, vol. 3877, folder 10, file 3

  • War trophies

    • RG 9 III-C-1, vol. 3890, folder 46, file 11

  • Strength, Dec. 1918 - Jan. 1919

    • RG 9 III-C-1, vol. 3894, folder 57, file 34

  • Minor operations, 26-27 July 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-1, vol. 3915, folder 50, file 12

  • Minor operations, 3-5 Aug. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4017, folder 34, file 13

  • Operation orders, 24 Feb. 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4062, folder 10, file 7

  • Operation orders, 21 April 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4067, folder 6, file 7

  • Operation orders, 23 July 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4077, folder 4, file 22

  • Aircraft, 1915 - 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, file 1

  • German ammunition, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, file 2

  • Artillery, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, file 3

  • Bombs and grenades, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, file 4

  • Casualties: Ypres, St-Julien, Festubert, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, files 5-8

  • Clothing and equipment, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4079, folder 1, file 9

  • Correspondence, Valcartier, Salisbury Plain, 1914

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, files 1-2

  • Defences, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 3

  • Devices, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 4

  • Establishment, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 5

  • Gas, 1915 - 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 6

  • Machine and Lewis guns, 1916 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 7

  • Intelligence, 25-26 July 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 8

  • Liquid fire, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 2, file 9

  • Moves and reliefs, 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 1

  • Nominal rolls, 1914 - 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 2

  • Officers, 1914 - 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 3

  • Operations. Festubert, 20-25 Dec. 1914

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 4

  • Operations. Mount Sorrel, 12-13 June 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 5

  • Operations. Pozieres, Aug. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 3, file 6

  • Operations. Courcelette, Sept. - Oct. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 4, file 1

  • Operations. Regina Trench, Oct. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 4, file 2

  • Operations. Vimy Ridge, Willerval-Arleux and Fresnoy, April - May 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 4, files 3-4

  • Operations. Hill 70, Oct. 1916 - Aug. 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 4, file 5

  • Operations Hill 70 and Puits 14 Bis., Aug. 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4080, folder 4, file 6

  • Operations. Amiens, Aug. 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 5, files 1-2

  • Operations. Arras-Drocourt-Quéant Ligne, 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 5, file 3

  • Operations. Canal du Nord to Cambrai, 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 5, file 4

  • Operations. Lessons learned, Aug. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 5, file 5

  • Battalion orders 1917 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 6, files 5-7

  • Salisbury Plain camp orders, 1914 - 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 7, files 1-3

  • Oxygen, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4081, folder 7, file 4

  • Enemy patrols, 28 July 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 1

  • Prisoners of war, 14-18 Aug. 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 2

  • Publications, 1916 - 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 3

  • Rations, 1916 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 4

  • Reinforcements, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 5

  • Remounts, 1917 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 6

  • Sanitation, 22-25 July 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 7

  • Signal service, 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 8

  • Trench stores, 1915 - 1917

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 9

  • Strength, 1916 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 10

  • Traffic, 1915 - 1918

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 11

  • Training, 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 12

  • Trench mortars, 22 Aug. 1916

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 13

  • Trenches and dugouts, 1-2 Aug. 1915

    • RG 9 III-C-3, vol. 4082, folder 8, file 14

  • Badges

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 20

  • Historical record

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 19

  • Operations. Ypres, 29 April 1915

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 22

  • Operations. Festubert, 18-21 May 1915

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 23

  • Operations. St-Eloi, April 1916

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 24

  • Operations. Mount Sorrel, 12-13 June 1916

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 25

  • Operations. Hill 70, 15-16 Aug. 1917

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 26

  • Operations. Raid, 13 Feb. 1918

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 27

  • Operations. Raids, 28 April 1918

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 28

  • Operations. Amiens, 8 Aug. 1918

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 29

  • Operations. Drocourt-Quéant Line, 1-2 Sept. 1918

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 30

  • Photographs

    • RG 9 III-D-1, vol. 4692, folder 50, file 21

  • Nominal roll on embarkation, 1914

    • RG 9 IIB3, vol. 79

  • Promotions, appointments

    • RG 9 III-B-1, vol. 2908, file P-33-33

  • Daily Orders

    • RG 150, vol. 70

      • File Part 1=1914/10/22-1915/01/02

      • File Part 2=1915/01/05-1915/03/28

      • File Part 3=1915/04/01-1915/06/27

      • File Part 4=1915/07/04-1915/12/25

      • File Part 5=1916/02/29-1916/05/31

      • File Part 6=1916/06/17-1916/08/31

      • File Part 7=1916/09/02-1916/10/31

      • File Part 8=1916/11/01-1916/12/31

      • File Part 9=1917/01/03-1917/02/28

      • File Part 10=1917/03/02-1917/04/30

      • File Part 11=1917/05/02-1917/06/30

      • File Part 12=1917/07/03-1917/08/31

      • File Part 13=1917/09/01-1917/10/31

      • File Part 14=1917/11/03-1917/12/31

      • File Part 15=1918/07/03-1918/09/30

      • File Part 16=1918/01/05-1918/03/31

      • File Part 17=1918/04/02-1918/06/30

      • File Part 18=1918/10/01-1918/12/31

      • File Part 19=1919/01/03-1919/03/31

      • File Part 20=1919/04/01-1920/02/17


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