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Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1900-13 | 1914-39 | 1940-63 | 1964-99


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1900-20 | 1921-36 | 1937-50 | 1951-99

Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1st Hussars
1st APC Regiment
1st British Columbia Horse
2nd Dragoons
2nd/10th Dragoons
3rd Prince of Wales' Cdn Dragoons
4th Hussars
4th Hussars of Canada
IV PLDG
5th Dragoons
5th Princess Louise Drag. Gds
6th Duke of Connaught's R.C.H.
7th Hussars
7th/11th Hussars
8th Princess Louise's NB Hussars
8th Cdn Hussars (Princess Louise's)
9th (Grey's) Horse
9th Toronto Light Horse
9th Mississauga Horse
10th Brant Dragoons
10th Queen's Own Cdn Hussars
11th Hussars
12th Manitoba Dragoons

12e Régiment Blindé du Canada

13th Scottish Light Dragoons
14th Canadian Hussars
14th King's Canadian Hussars
15th Light Horse
16th Light Horse
17th Duke of York's Royal Can. H.
17th PEI Recce
18th Mounted Rifles
19th Alberta Dragoons
19th The Alberta Mounted Rifles
20th Border Horse
21st Alberta Hussars
22nd Saskatchewan Horse
22nd Saskatchewan Light Horse
23rd Alberta Rangers
24th Grey's Horse
25th Brant Dragoons
26th Canadian Dragoons
27th Light Horse
28th New Brunswick Dragoons
29th Light Horse
30th Regiment (BC Horse)
31st Regiment (BC Horse)
32nd Light Horse
32nd Manitoba Horse
33rd Vaudreuil & Soulanges Huss.
34th Fort Garry Horse
35th Central Alberta Horse
36th PEI Light Horse
Algonquin Regiment
British Columbia Dragoons
British Columbia Mounted Rifles
British Columbia Regiment
Border Horse
Calgary Regiment
Canadian Mounted Rifles
Duke of York's Royal Cdn Hussars
Elgin Regiment
Fort Garry Horse
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Governor General's Body Guard
Governor General's Horse Guards
Halifax Rifles
King's Own Calgary Regt.
Lord Strathcona's Horse
Manitoba Dragoons
Manitoba Horse
Mississauga Horse
Ontario Mounted Rifles
Princess Louise Dragoon Guards
Queen's Own Canadian Hussars
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
Régt de Hull
Régt de Trois-Riviéres
Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles
Saskatchewan Dragoons
Sherbrooke Regiment
South Alberta Light Horse
Strathcona's Horse
Toronto Light Horse
Toronto Mounted Rifles
Windsor Regiment

Infantry Regiments 1900-1919
Dawson Rifles
GGFG
Kootenay Rifles
PPCLI
Royal Canadian Regiment
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CEF Battalions 1914-1920

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Infantry Regiments 1920-2000
1st British Columbia Regiment
1st BC Regt (D. of Conn.'s Own)
Algonquin Regiment
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Black Watch (RHR) of Canada
BC Regt (D. of Conn's Own Rifles)
Calgary Highlanders
Calgary Regiment
Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
Canadian Airborne Regiment
Canadian Scottish Regiment
 Canadian Fusiliers (C of L Regt)
Canadian Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards
Cape Breton Highlanders
Carleton and York Regiment
Elgin Regiment
Essex Scottish
Essex & Kent Scottish
 Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Fusiliers Mont Royal
Fusiliers du St. Laurent
48th Highlanders of Canada
Gov Gen Foot Guards
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Halifax Rifles
Hastings and Prince Edward Regt
Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Highland Light Infantry of Canada
Irish Fusiliers
Irish Fusiliers of Can (Vancouver R.)
Irish Regiment
Irish Regiment of Canada
Kent Regiment
King's Own Rifles of Canada
Lake Superior Regiment
Lincoln and Welland Regiment
Loyal Edmonton Regiment
Lorne Scots
Midland Regiment
Mississauga Regiment
New Brunswick Rangers
New Brunswick Scottish
North Nova Scotia Highlanders
North Shore (New Brunswick) Regt
North Waterloo Regiment
Oxford Rifles
Perth Regiment
Peterborough Rangers
Pictou Highlanders
PPCLI
Prince Albert and Battleford Voltrs
Princess Louise Fusiliers (MG)
Prince Rupert Regiment
Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
Queen's Rangers (1st Am. Regt.)
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
 Régiment de la Chaudière
 Régiment de Chateauguay
Régiment de Levis
 Régiment de Maisonneuve
Régiment de Montmagmy
 Régiment de Saguenay
Régiment de St. Hyacinthe
 Régiment de Québec
Regina Rifle Regiment
Rocky Mountain Rangers
Royal 22e Regt
Royal Canadian Regiment
Royal Highlanders of Canada
Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Royal Regiment of Canada
Royal Regina Rifles
Royal Hamilton Light Infantry
Royal Montreal Regiment
Royal New Brunswick Regiment
Royal Newfoundland Regiment
Royal Rifles of Canada
Royal Scots of Canada
Royal Winnipeg Rifles
Saskatoon Light Infantry
Scots Fusiliers of Canada
S, D and G Highlanders
Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
South Alberta Regiment
South New Brunswick Regiment
South Saskatchewan Regiment
Toronto Regiment
Toronto Scottish Regiment
Vancouver Regiment
Victoria Rifles of Canada
Voltigeurs de Quebec
Waterloo Regiment
Westminster Regiment
West Nova Scotia Regiment
West Toronto Regiment
Winnipeg Grenadiers
Winnipeg Light Infantry
York Rangers
 Yukon Regiment

103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles"

The 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles" was an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army formed in the period before the First World War.

Lineage

  • 1 April 1910 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles" authorized

  • 15 March 1920 redesignated The Calgary Regiment

103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles"

Headquarters: Calgary, AB
Authorized: 1 April 1910
Reorganized: 15 March 1920 to become The Calgary Regiment


History

 

Details of the regiment was placed on active service on 6 August 1914 for local protective duty. Volunteers were provided for the 10th Battalion, C.E.F. in September 1914, and the regiment later recruited for the 50th, 56th, 82nd, 89th, and 137th Battalions, C.E.F. The 10th and 50th Battalions served in the Canadian Corps (with the 1st and 4th Divisions, respectively) while the remainder were broken up for reinforcements.1

Detailed Pre-war History

Lieutenant Colonel William Armstrong had made several attempts to establish a Militia unit in Calgary before the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) was approved on 1 Apr 1910. Armstrong and the officers of his new unit celebrated the occasion, it is reported, with raw oysters and "Black Velvet". The new regiment was a Rifle regiment and was established with a headquarters and eight companies.

The Public Eye

The 103rd Calgary Rifles were a high profile organization in the small city of Calgary during its brief existence. Weekly parades were advertised in the The Calgary Herald, the mainstream city newspaper, and shooting competitions, balls, and other social events were carried out in the public eye.

One Staff Sergeant William Pearce, born 24 Aug 1858 in Nova Scotia, passed away on 1 Mar 1919 in Calgary. His obituary proudly pointed out his involvement with the 103rd Calgary Rifles. Recreational shooting at this time was a very popular activity, and a Rifle Regiment would prize itself especially on the marksmanship abilities of its soldiers. A contemporary news paper clipping read:

The remains of Staff-Sergt. William Pearce a well-known old-time Calgary resident and famous rifle shot were laid to rest with military honors in the Union Cemetery yesterday. Sergt. Pearce was one of the best known old-timers of this city. For many years he was a member of the 103rd Calgary rifles, and took part in many famous rifle matches. The Cortege started from the undertaking parlors of Graham, McCall & Ruttle ...The coffin was borne on a gun carriage and escorted by a number of officers and men from his old regiment. At the cemetery a short service was read and a firing party paid its last respects to a gallant soldier.

The Drum and Bugle Band of the battalion was also in attendance at various functions, such as the grand opening of the Hudson's Bay store, a downtown landmark for many decades.

At left, Lieutenant D. Lee Redman in the uniform of the 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles". Note the black leather crossbelt with silver whistle. The tunic is also peculiar to Rifle Regiments, in dark green with five rows of braid across the front and closed with toggles rather than buttons. Cuffs and collar would have been scarlet, and for an officer below the rank of Captain, Austrian knots would also have appeared on the cuffs, in addition to the two metal "pips" on the shoulder denoting a Lieutenant. (Glenbow Archives Photo NA-2362-1)

Far left: Lieutenant Colonel W.C.G. Armstrong in the uniform of the C.E.F.

War Service

One of the tasks of the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) during the First World War was to raise and train recruits for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Under the mobilization scheme in place, the 103rd was not slated to go overseas as a unit of its own. Individuals were able to serve in the many battalions of the CEF that were raised in Alberta.

Calgary's first battalion was the 10th Battalion; formed in Valcartier in September 1914, 846 men were provided by the 103rd Regiment (with 665 more coming from Manitoba's 106th Winnipeg Light Infantry). The battalion was one of the last units of the initial contingent of the CEF to be formed, and recruits were drawn from a number of sources. The unit went on to fight as part of the 1st Canadian Division in every major Canadian engagement of the war. Recruits for the battalion were drawn from all over Canada, but the majority came from Alberta throughout the war, and its "home" was considered to be Calgary.

The 31st (Alberta) Battalion began recruiting in Calgary in November 1914, extending its scope to the rest of Alberta, and eventually found a place in the 2nd Canadian Division. On 15 December 1914, another Calgary battalion was raised, the 50th, and despite sending two separate drafts of 255 men each to reinforce the 10th Battalion in France (in June and September 1915), the battalion was completed and sent overseas in October 1915, being attached to the 4th Canadian Division and also seeing extensive service in the trenches from 1916 to the end of the war.

Private Donald Fraser

Private Donald Fraser, of the 31st (Alberta) Battalion tells us in his journal of at least one NCO of the 103rd who served overseas:

The way our old soldiers, physical drill instructors, bayonet fighting instructors disappeared under the stress of battle to realms of easier work was a great disappointment to us. To instance a few cases. When the 31st became a battalion, the Regt. Sgt.-Maj. was a man named B__. He was one of the mainstays of the 103rd Calgary Rifles and naturally interested in military work. He was very insistent that we smarten up and be soldiers. His part of soldiering, however, was spent in England. He took good care to stay on the safe side of the Channel. As Sgt.-Maj. of our company--a hero of a hundred fights you would fancy him to be if you listened to his conversation--he wore four ribbons for service in Africa, Egypt and the Sudan and was a faddist on bayonet fighting. In England, he used to tap his side gently and remark that this, alluding to his revolver, was for N.C.O.s who refused to go over the top. I only saw this fire-eater pay a visit to the trenches once. I gave him the periscope to look through. He was very uneasy and had a half-hearted glance through it, slinking back to H'Qrs. a few minutes afterwards. This seasoned warrior obtained a commission and in addition managed to get back to Canada. I noticed his picture very nearly the central figure in a group of War Veterans, taken before their quarters on 9th Ave., Calgary.

Other more flattering examples can be found in the history of the 10th and 50th Battalions.

William Ashton Cockshutt

William Ashton Cockshutt was born in 1892, the eldest son of a long standing member of the Canadian Parliament from Brantford, Ontario. James Cockshutt, his uncle, was the founder of the famous western Canadian Cockshutt Plow Company.

Ashton was diagnosed with serious asthma; at age fourteen, he was not expected to live past the age of twenty and doctors recommended he move to Western Canada. A move to a farm near Calgary, improved his health, and the went on to attend Western Canada College, where, according to the Calgary Highlanders Museum website, "he was introduced to the values of a military lifestyle."

In 1909, he entered the Calgary office of the family business while also joining the 103rd Calgary Rifles as a private. He was later commissioned as an officer, and in 1914 went to Camp Valcartier with the first contingent of volunteers for the newly forming 10th Battalion.

Ashton saw much action in Europe, fighting at the first major Canadian battle (Second Ypres in April 1915), then Festubert and Givenchy, where he was wounded. He was returned to Brantford, Ontario where he joined the 125th Battalion and was promoted to Captain, proceeding overseas again with the 125th and being promoted major.

The Calgary Highlanders Museum website tells us: "In the fall of 1918, he returned to the Calgary office of the Cockshutt Plow Co. and rejoined the 10th Battalion. Ashton was one of three Officers who assisted in the formation of the Calgary Highlanders. Cockshutt remained a Highlander until 1922, when he was transferred to Edmonton with the Cockshutt Plow Co.. He held senior positions within the company and with other large corporations. William Ashton Cockshutt was one of the few Officers to serve in all three Regiments which perpetuate the Calgary Highlanders. He lived to be ninety-seven, a remarkable feat for a boy not expected to live past the age of twenty."

Sergeant William Dalton Buck

Other men of the 103rd Calgary Rifles served in Canada as prison guards. William Dalton Buck was born on the Isle of Wight, Southampton, England on the 12th of December 1859 and married in January 1878, aged eighteen. His wife, Augusta Emma Jesse, aged 21 at the time of their wedding, bore him ten children. Both his father and father in law were tailors, but Buck worked as a plumber, spending his spare time painting seascapes and also taking to the stage as a comedian and singer. He came to Canada two or three years before the outbreak of the Great War with his wife and family, excepting his eldest son who stayed in England.

After the outbreak of war, Buck became a Sergeant in the 103rd Calgary Rifles, at the age of 57 he was too old for war service. Instead, he became assigned to a prison camp set up near Castle Mountain in the Rockies. This was a tented camp for both enemy prisoners taken in action in France and Flanders, as well as internees (largely of Ukrainian heritage) taken from the civil population in Canada. In winter, the prisoners were moved to warmer barracks near Banff. When the prisoners were moved to Kapuskasing, Buck moved with them (taking his wife along).

Sergeant Buck left an interesting photographic record of his experiences in the camp, though other details of life has not been documented either by guards or prisoners, and is a chapter of Canadian history largely unwritten. It is not known how many other soldiers of the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) were employed in local internment and prison camps.

Bucks photos can be seen in the book In My Charge: the Canadian Internment Camp Photographs of Sergeant William Buck © 1997 Lubomyr Y Luciuk and Borys Sydoruk ISBN: 18963541491

Sergeant Walter Elliott Murray Goodfellow

One of the first volunteers for overseas service among the 103rd Calgary Rifles was Walter Goodfellow. Serving as an NCO in 1914, by the time of the St. Julien fighting, he was a sergeant in the Tenth Battalion.

According to the battalion historian, Daniel Dancocks, about a dozen men were never found after the fight at Kitcheners' Wood on 22-23 April 1915. Sergeant Goodfellow was among them, and his name is inscribed on the Menin Gate, a tribute to 55,000 dead Commonwealth soldiers who have no known grave.

Goodfellow had been born, like many of the initial volunteers for the Canadian Expeditionary Force, in the United Kingdom, specifically Edinburgh, Scotland. He listed his date of birth as 12 June 1893, making him just shy of 22 years of age when he was killed. His prewar occupation was carpenter, and his next of kin lived at 130 Garden Crescent in Calgary. His attestation was dated 23 September 1914, and was signed by "Lt Col R L Boyle, OC 10th Batt".

Postwar

In 1917, the battalion - still located in Calgary - reorganized as a four company unit. The 103rd maintained its part time status, drilling weekly in its Drill Hall and providing soldiers for posting to other full time employment in Canada and overseas. A wave of construction, of solid and purpose built Armouries, was underway in Canada, to provide the new military units with permanent homes. Mewata Armoury underwent construction on 24 Sep 1915 and was completed in 1918, at a cost of $282,051. The new building was of red brick and sandstone construction with a cut stone foundation, significant for large uninterrupted span of steel trusses and its Tudor/Gothic Revival architectural style. Deliberately calling to mind medieval castles, the new armoury came complete with corner towers. The large parade square was surrounded by 117 separate rooms and offices, with shooting ranges and bowling alleys in the basement.

On 15 March 1920, the regiment was reorganized, and renamed as simply The Calgary Regiment. It lost its rifle regiment traditions. The new Calgary Regiment was to have five battalions on paper, each perpetuating one of the C.E.F. battalions listed above.

Uniform

As a Rifle Regiment, the 103rd adopted a variety of unique uniform components and traditions, including the distinct "rifle green" uniform, distinct from the scarlet tunic of infantry of the line. Officers wore a black cartridge belt with silver whistle chain in place of the standard officers' Sam Browne belt.

For use in the field, the unit adopted the standard khaki Service Dress that became universal after introduction in 1907. Officers appear to have worn chromed or silver cap and collar badges of regimental pattern while non-commissioned soldiers wore blackened metal badges.

 

Lieutenant (ret.) Barry Agnew of the Calgary Highlanders Regimental Museum and Archives brushes off a collection of original 103rd Regiment uniform components during the Regimental Birthday parade in April 2005. The distinctive shoulder belt is clearly visible as are the chromed cap and collar badges.

Notes

  1. The Regiments and Corps of the Canadian Army (Queen's Printer, Ottawa, ON, 1964) p.102

Other References

  • The Regiments and Corps of the Canadian Army (Queen's Printer, Ottawa, ON, 1964)

  • Love, David W. A Call To Arms: The Organization and Administration of Canada's Military in World War One (Bunker to Bunker Books, Winnipeg, 1999.) ISBN 1894255038

  • Information and image in this section found at http://www.infoukes.com/history/internment/booklet03/ A copy of the album is also kept in the collection of the Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies in Banff, Alberta.

 


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