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Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1900-13 | 1914-39 | 1940-63 | 1964-99


Infantry Regiments
1900-20 | 1921-36 | 1937-50 | 1951-99

Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1st Hussars
1st APC Regiment
1st British Columbia Horse
2nd Dragoons
2nd/10th Dragoons
3rd Prince of Wales' Cdn Dragoons
4th Hussars
4th Hussars of Canada
IV PLDG
5th Dragoons
5th Princess Louise Drag. Gds
6th Duke of Connaught's R.C.H.
7th Hussars
7th/11th Hussars
8th Princess Louise's NB Hussars
8th Cdn Hussars (Princess Louise's)
9th (Grey's) Horse
9th Toronto Light Horse
9th Mississauga Horse
10th Brant Dragoons
10th Queen's Own Cdn Hussars
11th Hussars
12th Manitoba Dragoons

12e Régiment Blindé du Canada

13th Scottish Light Dragoons
14th Canadian Hussars
14th King's Canadian Hussars
15th Light Horse
16th Light Horse
17th Duke of York's Royal Can. H.
17th PEI Recce
18th Mounted Rifles
19th Alberta Dragoons
19th The Alberta Mounted Rifles
20th Border Horse
21st Alberta Hussars
22nd Saskatchewan Horse
22nd Saskatchewan Light Horse
23rd Alberta Rangers
24th Grey's Horse
25th Brant Dragoons
26th Canadian Dragoons
27th Light Horse
28th New Brunswick Dragoons
29th Light Horse
30th Regiment (BC Horse)
31st Regiment (BC Horse)
32nd Light Horse
32nd Manitoba Horse
33rd Vaudreuil & Soulanges Huss.
34th Fort Garry Horse
35th Central Alberta Horse
36th PEI Light Horse
Algonquin Regiment
British Columbia Dragoons
British Columbia Mounted Rifles
British Columbia Regiment
Border Horse
Calgary Regiment
Canadian Mounted Rifles
Duke of York's Royal Cdn Hussars
Elgin Regiment
Fort Garry Horse
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Governor General's Body Guard
Governor General's Horse Guards
Halifax Rifles
King's Own Calgary Regt.
Lord Strathcona's Horse
Manitoba Dragoons
Manitoba Horse
Mississauga Horse
Ontario Mounted Rifles
Princess Louise Dragoon Guards
Queen's Own Canadian Hussars
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
Régt de Hull
Régt de Trois-Riviéres
Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles
Saskatchewan Dragoons
Sherbrooke Regiment
South Alberta Light Horse
Strathcona's Horse
Toronto Light Horse
Toronto Mounted Rifles
Windsor Regiment

Infantry Regiments 1900-1919
Dawson Rifles
GGFG
Kootenay Rifles
PPCLI
Royal Canadian Regiment
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CEF Battalions 1914-1920

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Infantry Regiments 1920-2000
1st British Columbia Regiment
1st BC Regt (D. of Conn.'s Own)
Algonquin Regiment
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Black Watch (RHR) of Canada
BC Regt (D. of Conn's Own Rifles)
Calgary Highlanders
Calgary Regiment
Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
Canadian Airborne Regiment
Canadian Scottish Regiment
 Canadian Fusiliers (C of L Regt)
Canadian Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards
Cape Breton Highlanders
Carleton and York Regiment
Elgin Regiment
Essex Scottish
Essex & Kent Scottish
 Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Fusiliers Mont Royal
Fusiliers du St. Laurent
48th Highlanders of Canada
Gov Gen Foot Guards
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Halifax Rifles
Hastings and Prince Edward Regt
Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Highland Light Infantry of Canada
Irish Fusiliers
Irish Fusiliers of Can (Vancouver R.)
Irish Regiment
Irish Regiment of Canada
Kent Regiment
King's Own Rifles of Canada
Lake Superior Regiment
Lincoln and Welland Regiment
Loyal Edmonton Regiment
Lorne Scots
Midland Regiment
Mississauga Regiment
New Brunswick Rangers
New Brunswick Scottish
North Nova Scotia Highlanders
North Shore (New Brunswick) Regt
North Waterloo Regiment
Oxford Rifles
Perth Regiment
Peterborough Rangers
Pictou Highlanders
PPCLI
Prince Albert and Battleford Voltrs
Princess Louise Fusiliers (MG)
Prince Rupert Regiment
Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
Queen's Rangers (1st Am. Regt.)
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
 Régiment de la Chaudière
 Régiment de Chateauguay
Régiment de Levis
 Régiment de Maisonneuve
Régiment de Montmagmy
 Régiment de Saguenay
Régiment de St. Hyacinthe
 Régiment de Québec
Regina Rifle Regiment
Rocky Mountain Rangers
Royal 22e Regt
Royal Canadian Regiment
Royal Highlanders of Canada
Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Royal Regiment of Canada
Royal Regina Rifles
Royal Hamilton Light Infantry
Royal Montreal Regiment
Royal New Brunswick Regiment
Royal Newfoundland Regiment
Royal Rifles of Canada
Royal Scots of Canada
Royal Winnipeg Rifles
Saskatoon Light Infantry
Scots Fusiliers of Canada
S, D and G Highlanders
Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
South Alberta Regiment
South New Brunswick Regiment
South Saskatchewan Regiment
Toronto Regiment
Toronto Scottish Regiment
Vancouver Regiment
Victoria Rifles of Canada
Voltigeurs de Quebec
Waterloo Regiment
Westminster Regiment
West Nova Scotia Regiment
West Toronto Regiment
Winnipeg Grenadiers
Winnipeg Light Infantry
York Rangers
 Yukon Regiment

The Calgary Highlanders

The Calgary Highlanders was an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army during the 20th Century that continued its service into the 21st.

Lineage

  • 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles" formed on 1 April 1910

  • Redesignated The Calgary Regiment on 15 March 1920

  • 1st Battalion of The Calgary Regiment redesignated 1st Battalion,  Calgary Highlanders, The Calgary Regiment on 15 September 1921

  • Regiment reorganized as two separate regiments; split into The Calgary Highlanders and The Calgary Regiment on 15 May 1924
     

The Calgary Highlanders

Headquarters: Calgary, AB
Predecessors: 103rd Regiment, Calgary Rifles
Perpetuates: 10th, 56th and 82nd Battalions, CEF
Raised: 1 April 1910
Status on 31 December 1999: Active Militia Regiment

First World War

The 103rd Regiment placed details on active service for local protective duty on 6 August 1914, and soldiers of the 103rd Regiment helped staff prisoner of war and internment camps in Alberta. The Regiment provided drafts to the 10th Battalion, CEF on its formation in September, 1914 and later recruited for the 50th, 56th, 82nd, 89th and 137th Battalions of the CEF. The Calgary Highlanders were later permitted to perpetuate the 10th Battalion (in a dual perpetuation with The Winnipeg Light Infantry, as the 106th Regiment had also contributed materially to the unit on formation), the 56th and 82nd Battalions, with The Calgary Regiment perpetuating the 50th Battalion, which served in the 4th Division, and the 89th and 137th, which served as reinforcement units. The 10th Battalion served with the 1st Division in France and Flanders, participating in every major Canadian battle on the Western Front. Two soldiers of the 10th Battalion were awarded the Victoria Cross, both posthumously.

 

Second World War

The Calgary Highlanders mobilized on 1 September 1939 as a rifle battalion of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division. The unit concentrated in Shilo in the summer of 1940 and then travelled to the United Kingdom in the autumn, where it trained for almost four years. The mortar platoon embarked for the Dieppe Raid, where two soldiers were mentioned in despatches while serving as anti-aircraft gunners off-shore. The battalion landed in Normandy in July 1944 and as a component of the 5th Canadian Brigade, the unit saw action to the end of the North-West Europe campaign. The 1st Battalion was disbanded on return to Calgary in December 1945. A 2nd Battalion remained in Calgary with the Reserve Army.

 

Battle Honours

 

The Regiment was awarded Battle Honours for both World Wars (bold type indicates honours selected for emblazonment):

General Order No. 110 of 1929 granted honours for the First World War.

 

Ypres 1915, '17
St. Julien

Mount Sorrel
Thiepval
Arras, 1917, '18
Arleux
Passchendaele
Scarpe, 1918
Hindenburg Line
Pursuit to Mons
Bourguébus Ridge
Verrières Ridge-Tilly-la-Campagne
Falaise Road
Forêt de la Londe
Wyneghem
The Scheldt
South Beveland
The Rhineland
The Hochwald

The Rhine
Oldenburg
Gravenstavel
Festubert, 1915
Somme, 1916
Ancre Heights
Vimy, 1917
Hill 70
Amiens
Drocourt-Quéant
Canal du Nord
France and Flanders, 1915-18
Faubourg de Vaucelles
Falaise
Clair Tizon
Dunkirk, 1944
Antwerp-Turnhout Canal
Woensdrecht
Walcheren Causeway
The Reichswald
Xanten
Groningen
North-West Europe,1944-45
 

Traditions

Regimental Alliances
  • Formed a Regimental Alliance in 1921 with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's).

Regimental Motto
  • The Regimental motto is Onward (also the motto of the city of Calgary, translated in the 1980s into Gaelic as "Airaghardt".)

Official Marches
  • Quick Time: Highland Laddie and All The Blue Bonnets Are O'er The Border

  • Slow Time: The Sloedam (adopted late 1980s).

Formation/District Assignments

  • 3rd (Reserve) Infantry Brigade, Military District 13

  • 1st Battalion

    • 6th Infantry Brigade, CASF (1939-1940)

    • 5th Infantry Brigade (1940-1945)

  • 2nd Battalion

    • 3rd (Reserve) Infantry Brigade, Military District 13 1939-1940

    • 41st (Reserve) Brigade Group, 1939-1946

  • 18th Infantry Brigade, Western Command 1946-1954

  • 22 Militia Group, Alberta Area, Western Command 1954-1964

  • Southern Alberta Militia District, Prairie Militia Area 1964-1991

  • Alberta Militia District (renamed from SAMD)

  • Alberta Militia District, Land Force Western Area 1991-1997

  • 41 Canadian Brigade Group, Land Force Western Area 1997-2000

Headquarters

 

The regiment occupied Mewata Armouries at 801-11th Street SW in Calgary from the time it was granted its designation into the 21st Century. After the Second World War the unit maintained a number of outlying companies in rural areas which disappeared by the end of the century, though affiliated cadet corps were maintained in Airdrie and Turner Valley.

 

Uniforms

T
he regiment adopted Government (Black Watch) tartan upon creation. A well-meaning Honorary Colonel purchased Royal Stewart tartan kilts and plaids for the pipers of the regiment before the Second World War; they were politely informed upon arrival in England in 1940 that the Royal Stewart tartan was reserved for Royal regiments. The pipers of the 2nd Battalion retained the tartan for a period during the war. In the 1990s, pipe ribbons in Royal Stewart and Gordon Highlanders tartan were adopted, in homage to the appointment of Queen Elizabeth II as Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment, and the tartan worn by the Calgary Scottish pipe band in the early years of the 20th Century, from which the early Pipes and Drums drew many of its first performers.

Senior NCOs and officers wore a kilt panel and rosettes on the kilt as a rank distinction, in line with the dress distinctions of The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's) of the British Army. By tradition, the Argylls also wear box pleated kilts, to set them apart from the Black Watch who also wear the Government Tartan, with kilts arranged in knife pleats.

Plain brown purse sporrans of various types were worn for walking out dress; hair sporrans were patterned after that worn by the allied regiment. Officers wore a badger head sporran, with Other Ranks wearing a six-point sporran with black horsehair and white "points" or tassels. Over time, the wearing of badger head sporrans was adopted by Warrant Officers and senior NCOs. Shortages of six-point sporrans also resulted in the latter decades of the 20th Century in restricting the wear of the six-point sporrans to corporals and master corporals. Pipers wore a traditional three-point sporran in brown horsehair with black points. Both the Pipe Major and Drum Major adopted the wear of a three point sporran in white with black points sometime after the Second World War.

The glengarry worn had red/white/red dicing, with a red toorie (except pipers, who wore plain black glengarries with red toories).

The Regiment also adopted some unusual headdress at various times; pipers in the Regimental Pipes and Drums briefly wore the feather bonnet in Full Dress after the Korean War. The regiment as a whole, with the exception of the Pipe Band, adopted a diced balmoral in lieu of the Glengarry in the 1960s and 1970s; the balmoral was a dark blue with red and white dice and a red toorie, styled after the regimental glengarry.

 

Insignia
 

Cap Badge

The cap badge is described in "Regiments and Corps of the Canadian Army" as:

Upon sprays of thistle, a St. Andrew's Cross, on the centre of the Cross a beaver on a log encircled by a wreath of maple leaves; below the beaver, on the wreath a scroll emblazoned with thistles, placed above a scroll enscribed with the unit designation "CALGARY HIGHLANDERS"; above the wreath upon the upper arms of the Cross a scroll emblazoned with thistles and on the centre, between the upper arms of the Cross, the Crown.1

The Tudor Crown badge was approved by General Order 115 of 1925; the badge was issued in brass and later bronze and "battle bronze" (dark brown) with white metal overlays. Officers, the RSM, and Musicians seem to have worn silver badges, either chromed, nickle plated or in the case of some officers, sterling silver.

  Badge design (King's Crown)

 

After 1953 and the introduction of the St. Edward's Crown badges, officers, the RSM, and Musicians traditionally wore silver coloured badges, though at some point warrant officers and sergeants also adopted them. Other Ranks wore a bronze badge with white metal overlay, and gold badges became issued to regimental soldiers not yet trained as infantrymen, as well as associated cadet corps.

A cloth cap badge was also produced for the Combat Field Cap.

 

 

Collar Badges


Three types of collar badges have been issued since the inception of the Regiment:

 

  • mirrored miniatures of the cap badge, King's Crown, seen in silver and brass; when worn, the beavers face each other.

  • example as seen below with "FIRST BATTALION" appearing on the scrolls, King's Crown, in brass and silver

  • as below, Queen's Crown, in gold, bronze and silver.2

   

Metal Shoulder Titles

 

The original shoulder badge authorized was a simple "C.H" badge in brass, worn until 1938.


When Battle Honours for the First World War were being considered in the 1920s, the units that perpetuated the 10th and 16th Battalions of the CEF were perturbed that they did not receive recognition for the Battle of Kitcheners' Wood.  That battle had marked the first offensive action taken by Canadian soldiers in the First World War, and was later described by Marshall Foch as "the finest act in the War."  The commanding officers of the three battalions (The Canadian Scottish Regiment, The Calgary Highlanders, and The Winnipeg Light Infantry) petitioned Ottawa, and gained the support of many prominent individuals such as Sir Arthur Currie.  The Adjutant General proposed that a distinction in dress be awarded in lieu of a battle honour.

In June 1926, it was suggested that one or more oak leaves on a blood red background be adopted as a collar badge, as Kitcheners Wood had been an oak plantation.   The Calgary Highlanders preferred a badge be worn on the lower sleeve while the WLI preferred an upper sleeve badge.  All three agreed that an acorn and oak leaf design was desirable.  The Adjutant General agreed that a collar badge depicting a single acorn and oak leaf was acceptable, and could be worn in conjunction with existing collar badges, as precedence for double collar badges had been set in the British Army by the Seaforth Highlanders and the Royal Irish Fusiliers.

In 1930, the Adjutant General's office proposed that the collar badges of the individual units be set upon a bronze oak leaf.  This idea was rejected, and in 1933 a metal shoulder badge was agreed upon.  The Calgary Highlanders and Canadian Scottish wanted the full name of the regiment to be part of the design, while the WLI wanted only their initials.

General Orders in 1934 granted authority for the Calgary Highlanders and Canadian Scottish to wear bronze oak leaf and acorn badges with their names inscribed on an annulus.  The WLI were to wear a badge consisting of the oak leaf and acorn with the initials on the regiment superimposed.

Barry Agnew, former Calgary Highlander officer, curator of the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, and Calgary Highlanders Museum Curator, uncovered the drawings at right in the National Archives in Ottawa.  They show suggested designs for the Calgary Highlanders' oak leaf badges; none of the badges were ever worn.3

The final approved pattern was first issued in 1938; The Calgary Highlanders and The Winnipeg Light Infantry both adopted similar titles with oakleaf and acorn designs (issued in left and right pairs) with the initials of the unit title embossed upon them. The Canadian Scottish adopted the more elaborate design of an annulus surrounding the oak leaf with the full regimental title spelled out. The oak leaf badges were worn by the regiment on service dress, and after the Second World War, were worn on Battle Dress into the 1970s.
 


1938 actual badges adopted

Buttons

Early buttons featured the full regimental cap badge design; this was later simplified to a design that featured the St. Andrew's Cross and beaver and log from the regimental crest, in brass, white metal or silver, and came in three sizes.4

Cloth Shoulder Flashes

 

The first unit identifier used on Battle Dress was a slip on shoulder title adopted sometime in 1940. It was worn by the 1st Battalion overseas until 1941; the 2nd Battalion adopted it at some point also and wore them to the end of the war.


As a unit of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division in the Second World War, the overseas battalion also wore a royal blue formation patch of the division. In the period 1941-1942, a red triangle was worn over top of the divisional patch as part the the "battle patch" system in use by the formation at that time.

 

After Dieppe, the overseas battalion adopted a dark blue shoulder flash for wear on Battle Dress.  According to the staff at the regimental museum, the first pattern of cloth shoulder flash was a blue crescent, with CALGARY HIGHLANDERS and CANADA embroidered thereupon. While small numbers of these titles have been found on the collectors market, there is no evidence to suggest that they ever progressed past prototype stage. There is no photographic record of the badges being worn.

 

The type adopted was a lozenge shape in royal blue with green and red lettering. The titles were found in both melton and later in the war, printed on canvas. After the war, melton titles of the same pattern were worn into the 1970s on Battle Dress and Bush Dress. The adoption of Garrison Dress in the 1990s saw a revival of the pattern, on shinier cloth with swiss embroidered edges.


When the CF Uniform was adopted in the 1970s, replacing battle dress and service dress, a distinctive CF Green shoulder flash was designed for wear on the service dress jacket, as the distinctive metal oak leaf shoulder title could no longer be worn on the new uniform, which lacked shoulder straps.

The Calgary Highlanders adopted a large arc shaped title with the name of the regiment, the oak leaf, and the numeral "10" (to represent the 10th Battalion, CEF) superimposed.   This badge was designed by Lieutenant JH Brink, and was approved for wear in 1981.  The flashes were issued in left and right pairs, with the acorn on the oak leaf worn facing the wearer's front. Metal oak leaves continued to be worn on work dress.

On Combat Dress, the unit wore the standard olive drab combat title, with the unit's short form name CALG HIGHRS embroidered upon it.

 

Notes

  1. The Regiments and Corps of the Canadian Army, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1964, p.227

  2. Thompson, Roy J.C. Canadian Army Cap Badges 1953-1973, 2nd Edition gives a date of 1956 for the "1st type" and illustrates them with Queen's Crowns

  3. Photos and information from from The Oakleaf, Regimental Newsletter of the Calgary Highlanders, Dec 1991 issue.

  4. Smylie Reference Number: F-103e and F-103f.


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