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Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1900-13 | 1914-39 | 1940-63 | 1964-99


Infantry Regiments
1900-20 | 1921-36 | 1937-50 | 1951-99

Cavalry/Armoured Regiments
1st Hussars
1st APC Regiment
1st British Columbia Horse
2nd Dragoons
2nd/10th Dragoons
3rd Prince of Wales' Cdn Dragoons
4th Hussars
4th Hussars of Canada
IV PLDG
5th Dragoons
5th Princess Louise Drag. Gds
6th Duke of Connaught's R.C.H.
7th Hussars
7th/11th Hussars
8th Princess Louise's NB Hussars
8th Cdn Hussars (Princess Louise's)
9th (Grey's) Horse
9th Toronto Light Horse
9th Mississauga Horse
10th Brant Dragoons
10th Queen's Own Cdn Hussars
11th Hussars
12th Manitoba Dragoons

12e Régiment Blindé du Canada

13th Scottish Light Dragoons
14th Canadian Hussars
14th King's Canadian Hussars
15th Light Horse
16th Light Horse
17th Duke of York's Royal Can. H.
17th PEI Recce
18th Mounted Rifles
19th Alberta Dragoons
19th The Alberta Mounted Rifles
20th Border Horse
21st Alberta Hussars
22nd Saskatchewan Horse
22nd Saskatchewan Light Horse
23rd Alberta Rangers
24th Grey's Horse
25th Brant Dragoons
26th Canadian Dragoons
27th Light Horse
28th New Brunswick Dragoons
29th Light Horse
30th Regiment (BC Horse)
31st Regiment (BC Horse)
32nd Light Horse
32nd Manitoba Horse
33rd Vaudreuil & Soulanges Huss.
34th Fort Garry Horse
35th Central Alberta Horse
36th PEI Light Horse
Algonquin Regiment
British Columbia Dragoons
British Columbia Mounted Rifles
British Columbia Regiment
Border Horse
Calgary Regiment
Canadian Mounted Rifles
Duke of York's Royal Cdn Hussars
Elgin Regiment
Fort Garry Horse
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Governor General's Body Guard
Governor General's Horse Guards
Halifax Rifles
King's Own Calgary Regt.
Lord Strathcona's Horse
Manitoba Dragoons
Manitoba Horse
Mississauga Horse
Ontario Mounted Rifles
Princess Louise Dragoon Guards
Queen's Own Canadian Hussars
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
Régt de Hull
Régt de Trois-Riviéres
Royal Canadian Dragoons
Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles
Saskatchewan Dragoons
Sherbrooke Regiment
South Alberta Light Horse
Strathcona's Horse
Toronto Light Horse
Toronto Mounted Rifles
Windsor Regiment

Infantry Regiments 1900-1919
Dawson Rifles
GGFG
Kootenay Rifles
PPCLI
Royal Canadian Regiment
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CEF Battalions 1914-1920

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Infantry Regiments 1920-2000
1st British Columbia Regiment
1st BC Regt (D. of Conn.'s Own)
Algonquin Regiment
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders
Black Watch (RHR) of Canada
BC Regt (D. of Conn's Own Rifles)
Calgary Highlanders
Calgary Regiment
Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
Canadian Airborne Regiment
Canadian Scottish Regiment
 Canadian Fusiliers (C of L Regt)
Canadian Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards
Cape Breton Highlanders
Carleton and York Regiment
Elgin Regiment
Essex Scottish
Essex & Kent Scottish
 Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Fusiliers Mont Royal
Fusiliers du St. Laurent
48th Highlanders of Canada
Gov Gen Foot Guards
Grey & Simcoe Foresters
Halifax Rifles
Hastings and Prince Edward Regt
Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Highland Light Infantry of Canada
Irish Fusiliers
Irish Fusiliers of Can (Vancouver R.)
Irish Regiment
Irish Regiment of Canada
Kent Regiment
King's Own Rifles of Canada
Lake Superior Regiment
Lincoln and Welland Regiment
Loyal Edmonton Regiment
Lorne Scots
Midland Regiment
Mississauga Regiment
New Brunswick Rangers
New Brunswick Scottish
North Nova Scotia Highlanders
North Shore (New Brunswick) Regt
North Waterloo Regiment
Oxford Rifles
Perth Regiment
Peterborough Rangers
Pictou Highlanders
PPCLI
Prince Albert and Battleford Voltrs
Princess Louise Fusiliers (MG)
Prince Rupert Regiment
Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders
Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
Queen's Rangers (1st Am. Regt.)
Queen's York Rangers (1st Am. R.)
 Régiment de la Chaudière
 Régiment de Chateauguay
Régiment de Levis
 Régiment de Maisonneuve
Régiment de Montmagmy
 Régiment de Saguenay
Régiment de St. Hyacinthe
 Régiment de Québec
Regina Rifle Regiment
Rocky Mountain Rangers
Royal 22e Regt
Royal Canadian Regiment
Royal Highlanders of Canada
Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
Royal Regiment of Canada
Royal Regina Rifles
Royal Hamilton Light Infantry
Royal Montreal Regiment
Royal New Brunswick Regiment
Royal Newfoundland Regiment
Royal Rifles of Canada
Royal Scots of Canada
Royal Winnipeg Rifles
Saskatoon Light Infantry
Scots Fusiliers of Canada
S, D and G Highlanders
Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
South Alberta Regiment
South New Brunswick Regiment
South Saskatchewan Regiment
Toronto Regiment
Toronto Scottish Regiment
Vancouver Regiment
Victoria Rifles of Canada
Voltigeurs de Quebec
Waterloo Regiment
Westminster Regiment
West Nova Scotia Regiment
West Toronto Regiment
Winnipeg Grenadiers
Winnipeg Light Infantry
York Rangers
 Yukon Regiment

The Royal Canadian Regiment

The Royal Canadian Regiment was an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army that served throughout the 20th Century.

Lineage

  • Infantry School Corps authorized 21 December 1883

  • Redesignated Canadian Regiment of Infantry 14 May 1892

  • Redesignated The Royal Regiment of Canadian Infantry 24 May 1893

  • Redesignated The Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry 1 April 1899

  • Redesignated The Royal Canadian Regiment 1 November 1901

The Royal Canadian Regiment

Headquarters: Various
Predecessor: None
Perpetuates: 1st, 33rd, 71st, 142nd, 168th Battalions, CEF and 2nd Battalion, CMGC
Raised: 21 December 1883
Status as of 31 December 1999: Active infantry regiment (3 Regular Force battalions, 1 Reserve Force battalion),

 

History

The Royal Canadian Regiment traced its history to the formation of the Infantry School Corps with three companies ("A" at Fredericton, NB, "B" at St Johns, PQ and "C" at Toronto, ON) on 21 December 1883. This unit was formed as a regular unit to train the Canadian Militia. A fourth company ("D" at London, ON) was formed on 18 August 1887.  The unit saw action during the North-West Rebellion in 1885, fighting at Batoche and Cut Knife Creek. Half of "C" Company served with General Middleton's column, the other half with Lieutenant-Colonel Otter's column. Personnel of the regiment also later served with the Yukon Field Force (1898-1900), which assisted the Royal Northwest Mounted Police in the Yukon during the Gold Rush.

The Regiment's name was changed to The Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry in 1899. During the South African War (Second Boer War), the "2nd (Special Service) Battalion" was raised from across the country to contribute Canada's First Contingent, and the battalion was quickly disbanded in 1900 on its return to Canada. The "3rd (Special Service) Battalion" was also raised at this time, in 1900, and was employed as a garrison force in Halifax until 1902 when it was also disbanded.

In the Boer War, the Toronto company of the 2RCRI fought Canada’s first overseas battle at Sunnyside, Cape Colony, on 1 January 1900, defeating a Boer commando in an action led by Australia's Queensland Mounted Infantry. The remainder of the regiment joined them for the fighting at Paardeberg Drift (18-27 February 1900) which included a night advance on the enemy's positions on high ground. The Canadians won a signficant victory, removing a Boer blocking position on the way to the enemy capital, Blomfontein. The date of the enemy's surrender, 27 February, was maintained afterwards as Paardeberg Day by the regiment. The RCRI distinguished itself again during the march on Pretoria to the north.


During the South African War Private Richard Rowland Thompson was one of four men awarded the Queen's Scarf.

In 1901, the Regiment's name was changed to The Royal Canadian Regiment.

 

First World War

 

In 1914, the Regiment was deployed to Bermuda for garrison duties from September 1914 to August 1915 when it returned to Halifax and re-attested for overseas service in the First World War. The RCR arrived in France October 1915 to join the newly created 3rd Canadian Division. The Regiment combined with Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry and the 42nd Battalion, CEF and 49th Battalion, CEF to form the 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade. It served in the division until the end of the war, and one soldier earned the Victoria Cross. Lieutenant Milton F. Gregg, MC, earned the supreme award on 27 September 1918.

Interwar


The RCR remained a Permanent Force regiment between the wars and returned to its role of providing instruction to the Militia through garrisons in London (Ontario), Halifax (Nova Scotia), Toronto (Ontario) and Montreal (Quebec).

 

Second World War

On 1 September 1939 the Regiment was placed on active service as Canada prepared for participation in the Second World War. The Royal Canadian Regiment, Canadian Active Service Force was created as a component of the 1st Canadian Division and embarded for the United Kingdom on 18 December 1939. On 14 June 1940, it took part in the abortive move to the Continent as part of the 2nd British Expeditionary Force, and made it as far inland as Laval before being ordered withdrawn.

 

The RCR saw hard training for almost several years in the U.K. and in the summer of 1943 headed to the Mediterranean. On 10 July 1943 the RCR landed at Pachino as part of the Allied invasion of Sicily. After fighting across the island as a component of the 1st Canadian Brigade of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division, the regiment was involved in another amphibious landing at Reggio di Calabria on 3 September 1943. The RCR was also part of the fierce battles outside Ortona and then took part in attacks on the German defences in Italy at the Adolf Hitler Line and the Gothic Line.

 

Lieutenant W. Smith, a platoon commander, and Sergeant F.G. White, a platoon sergeant, both of The Royal Canadian Regiment, resting after the capture of Pontecorvo, Italy, 24 May 1944.

The regiment was transferred to North-West Europe on 9 March 1945 along with the rest of I Canadian Corps and took part in the liberation the Dutch city of Apeldoorn.

The regiment returned home to Canada in 1945. The overseas regiment disbanded on 1 March 1946.

 

On 1 June 1945, a second Active Force component of the regiment was mobilized for service in the Pacific theatre of operations, under the designation '1st Canadian Infantry Battalion (The Royal Canadian Regiment), CASF'. It was redesignated: '2nd Battalion The Royal Canadian Regiment, CIC' on 2 September 1945; and 'The Royal Canadian Regiment, CIC' on 1 March 1946. On 27 June 1946, it was embodied in the Permanent Force underneath its prewar designation, 'The Royal Canadian Regiment'.


Korean War

In 1950 the Regiment was called upon to contribute to Canada's forces for the Korean War. A new Canadian Army Special Force was raised and the Regiment expanded to a 2-battalion, then a 3-battalion, organization. The 2nd Battalion served in Koreas with the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group, itself a component of the 1st Commonwealth Division. The 2nd Battalion served overseas from 5 May 1951 to 25 April 1952, and was relieved by the 1st Battalion (20 April 1952 - 25 March 1953) and 3rd Battalion (23 March 1953) in turn. In February 1952, the 2nd Battalion fought the Chinese at the battle of Kowang San. It was replaced by the 3rd Battalion, which took over the Jamestown Line on Hill 187, where it fought one of the last engagements before the armistice in 1953.

Battle Honours

The Regiment was awarded Battle Honours for both World Wars and the Korean War (bold type indicates honours selected for emblazonment):

Saskatchewan
Paardeberg
Ypres, 1915, '17

St. Julien
Mount Sorrel
Pozières
Ancre Heights

Vimy, 1917
Scarpe, 1917, '18
Passchendaele
Drocourt-Quéant
Canal du Nord
Pursuit to Mons
Landing in Sicily
Agira
Regalbuto
Landing at Reggio
Campobasso
San Leonardo
Ortona
Gustav Line
Hitler Line
Lamone Crossing
Rimini Line
Pisciatello
Italy 1943-45

 North-West Europe, 1945
North West Canada, 1885
South Africa, 1899-1900
Gravenstafel
Festubert, 1915
Somme, 1916
Flers-Courcelette

Arras, 1917, '18
Arleux
Hill 70
Amiens
Hindenburg Line
Cambrai, 1918
France and Flanders, 1915-18
Valguarnera
Adrano
Sicily, 1943
Motta Montecorvino
Torella
The Gully
Cassino II
Liri Valley
Gothic Line
Misano Ridge
San Martino - San Lorenzo
Fosso Vecchio
Apeldoorn

Korea, 1951-1953

 

Origin of C.E.F. Battle Honours

 

Battle Honours are held by the regiment, not individual battalions. The reserve battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment, itself an amalgamation of several units which perpetuate a number of C.E.F. battalions, have added to the total number.3 The breakdown is as follows:

Originating Unit: The Royal Canadian Regiment, CEF 1st Battalion, CEF 2nd Battalion
Canadian MG Corps
Total (since 1954)
    Ypres, 1915   Ypres, 1915
    Gravenstafel   Gravenstafel
    St. Julien   St. Julien
    Festubert, 1915   Festubert, 1915
  Mount Sorrel Mount Sorrel   Mount Sorrel
  Somme, 1916 Somme, 1916   Somme, 1916
    Pozières   Pozieres
  Flers-Courcelette Flers-Courcelette   Flers-Courcelette
  Ancre Heights Ancre Heights   Ancre Heights
  Arras, 1917 Arras, 1917   Arras, 1917
  Vimy, 1917 Vimy, 1917   Vimy, 1917
    Arleux   Arleux
    Scarpe, 1917   Scarpe, 1917
  Hill 70 Hill 70   Hill 70
  Ypres, 1917 Ypres, 1917   Ypres, 1917
  Passchendaele Passchendaele   Passchendaele
  Amiens Amiens Amiens Amiens
  Arras, 1918 Arras, 1918 Arras, 1918 Arras, 1918
  Scarpe, 1918 Scarpe, 1918 Scarpe, 1918 Scarpe, 1918
    Drocourt-Quéant Drocourt-Quéant Drocourt-Quéant
  Hindenburg Line Hindenburg Line Hindenburg Line Hindenburg Line
  Canal du Nord Canal du Nord Canal du Nord Canal du Nord
      Cambrai, 1918 Cambrai, 1918
  Pursuit to Mons Pursuit to Mons Pursuit to Mons Pursuit to Mons
  France and Flanders 1915-1918 France and Flanders 1915-1918 France and Flanders 1918 France and Flanders 1915-1918
Total:

16

24

9

49

 

Cold War

 

After the end of the Korean War, the regiment was reduced to two battalions, when the 3rd Battalion was renamed as 1st Battalion, The Canadian Guards. In 1954 two London, Ontario, Militia regiments, The Canadian Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)(MG) and The Oxford Rifles were amalgamated and redesignated The London and Oxford Fusiliers (3rd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment). This unit thus became the Reserve component of The RCR. In 1958, it was renamed 3rd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment (London and Oxford Fusiliers).

The 3rd Battalion was renumbered as the 4th Battalion in 1970 when a new 3rd Battalion (on the Regular Force establishment) was reactivated. In 1989, the designation of the Reserve battalion was shortened to 4th Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment. This amalgamation also brought to the Regiment the perpetuation of a number of battalions of the First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force, including the 1st, 33rd, 71st, 142nd and 168th Battalions as well as the 2nd battalion of the Canadian Machine Gun Corps. The amalgamation also saw the total battle honours for the First World War, based on the combined list of amalgamated components of the Regiment, increased.

The Militia battalion changed from the 3rd to the 4th Battalion in 1970 when The Canadian Guards were reduced to nil strength and the soldiers of that regiment's 2nd Battalion (at CFB Petawawa) became the restored 3rd Battalion, The RCR, on the Regular Force order of battle. At the same time, the 2nd Battalion of The RCR was relocated to CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick, and reconstituted from the soldiers of The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada as its two battalions there were also reduced to nil strength and removed from the active regiments in the Army's Regular Force order of battle.

During the 1950s and 1960s, battalions of The RCR were stationed at Fort York, Germany. These deployments were executed by 1RCR (1955-57 and 1962-65) and 2RCR (1953-55) and 1965-70). 3RCR was later deployed to Germany, stationed in Baden-Soellingen 1977-84 and 1988-93.

All three Regular Force Battalions of The RCR were deployed during the October Crisis in 1970 as part of the government's response to the FLQ. The three Regular Force battalions were also deployed in to support the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal, Quebec.

Throughout the Cold War period, The RCR participated in Canada's contributions to United Nations Peacekeeping. For battalions of the Regiment, this meant rotating tours on the Island of Cyprus. The six-month tours of this mission, named Operation SNOWGOOSE, were executed by elements of the Regiment thirteen times between 1966 and 1992.

In 1977 3RCR was posted to CFB Baden-Soellingen in Germany. In 1984 the battalion was rotated to Winnipeg. In 1988 the battalion was rotated back to Baden until the base was closed in 1993 at which time it was disbanded in Germany and subsequently stood up at CFB Borden, Ontario, as a "10/90" battalion. the "10/90" concept saw an infantry unit in each Regular Force Regiment established with approximately 10 per cent of its personnel being full-time Regular soldiers, while the remaining positions were filled by Reserve Force soldiers from affiliated units in the region. These units existed until 1996 when the three 10/90 battalions were stood down and replaced by Light Infantry Battalions on the Regular Force order of battle. Initially formed without specific Regimental affiliation, within the year the Light Infantry Battalion was relocated to CFB Petawawa and officially designated the 3rd Battalion, The RCR.

 

After the Cold War

In 1990, HQ and "Duke of Edinburgh's" Company (the first rifle company) of the 1st Battalion deployed to Cornwall, Ontario, as part of Operation KAHNAWAKE. The 2nd Battalion, as part of 5e Groupe Brigade Mecanisee du Canada, deployed to the Montreal region to partake in Operation SALON. These deployments were part of the government's response to the so-called "Oka Crisis".

In 1991, "Mike" Company and a platoon from "Papa" Company from 3RCR (CFB Baden-Soellingen, Germany) and "Charles" Company from 1RCR (CFB London, Ontario) served in the Persian Gulf during Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, the first Gulf War. "C" Company served in Al Jabail, Saudi Arabia as security for "1 Canadian Field Hospital" and prisoner of war processing from 21 February to 20 March 1991. No. 12 Platoon of "P" Company served at Bahrain as security from 16 January to 31 March 1991.


In 1992, soldiers from the English-speaking November Company of the Third Battalion based out of Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Baden-Soellingen in Germany, as an attachment to the French-speaking Royal 22e Régiment, operationally secured the Sarajevo airport during the Yugoslav wars. This Operation saw a re-deployment of the entire Battle Group from Croatia to the Sarajevo Theatre of Operations, under the command of General Lewis MacKenzie. Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, made mention of this Operational Force and its commitment to international peace while in the National Capital Region that same year. The Unit returned to Bosnia for a tour with the stabilization force, SFOR, in 1998 and 1999.2

The 1st Battalion has served as peacekeepers in the Sinai Peninsula, in Bosnia and Kosovo.

Senior Personnel

Since 1953, the Colonel-in-Chief of the Regiment has been the Duke of Edinburgh.

 

Insignia

 

Cap Badge

The cap badge is described as:

On an eight-pointed diamond-cut star Argent a bezant inscribed VRI, the Cypher of Queen Victoria, in letters Argent and encircled by a rope Or surmounted in chief with the Royal Crown proper.

The Directorate of History and Heritage notes: "The star is a customary infantry badge shape from the 19th Century. King George V granted the regiment the right to wear in perpetuity Queen Victoria's cypher "VRI" in memory of the sovereign under whose reign the regiment was raised and in view of the services the regiment rendered in the Great War."

Notes

  1. A-AD-267-000/AF-003 Official Lineages, Volume 3, Part 1: Armour, Artillery and Field Engineer Regiments – Armour Regiments. Directorate of History and Heritage. June 11, 2010 accessed online at http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/ol-lo/vol-tom-3/par2/RCR-eng.asp (referencing General Order 53/1919)

  2. Ibid

  3. O'Leary, Michael "Great War Battle Honours Revisited; 25 or 49?" The Regimental Rogue, accessed online 9 Feb 2013


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