Weapons

Small Arms

Bayonets | Pistols  | Rifles
Submachine Guns

Thompson Submachine Gun
Sten Gun
C1 Submachine Gun

Light Weapons

Light Machine Guns

Lewis Gun
Bren Gun
C2 LMG
C9 LMG

Machine Guns

Colt Machine Gun
Vickers Gun
C5 General Purpose MG
C6 General Purpose MG
M2 .50 calibre

Light Anti-Tank Weapons

Boys Anti-Tank Rifle
Projector, Infantry, Anti-Tank
Bazooka
M72 SRAAW (L)
Carl Gustav
Eryx

Mortars

2-inch Mortar
3-inch Mortar
3-inch Stokes Gun
6-inch Newton Mortar
9.45-inch Newton Mortar
C3 81mm Mortar
M19 60mm Mortar

Ordnance

Anti-Tank Guns

106mm Recoilless Rifle
2-pounder Anti-Tank Gun
6-pounder Anti-Tank Gun
17-pounder Anti-Tank Gun
TOW Missile

Guns

18-pounder Gun
25-pounder Gun
60-pounder Howitzer
C1 105mm Howitzer
C3 105mm Howitzer
LG1 C1 105mm Howitzer

Anti-Aircraft Guns

3.7-inch Gun

Grenades

Hand Grenades
No. 69 Grenade
M61 & M67 Grenade
Rifle Grenades
Grenade Launchers
Anti-Tank Grenades
No. 68 Grenade

Ammunition
Small Arms & Light Weapons

.303 Mk VII
5.56mm
7.62mm NATO
Pistol Ammunition
PIAT Ammunition

Ordnance

106mm Ammunition
Armour Piercing
Armour Piercing Composite Rigid
AP Discarding Sabot
High Explosive Anti-Tank
High Explosive, Squash Head

Terminology

Fixed ammunition
Proximity Fuze

High Explosive Squash Head

High Explosive, Squash Head (HESH) is a type of explosive ammunition designed to defeat tank armour. It was used by the Canadian Army after the Second World War, and used as a main battle tank ammunition, with versions in both 105mm (as used by the Centurion tank), and 76mm (as used by the Cougar).

Description

HESH rounds contain a warhead filled with plastic explosive and a delayed fuse. On impact the plastic explosive in the shell spreads out to form a disk on the surface of the armour. The fuse then detonates the explosive, creating a shock wave which travels through the armour, causing flakes of metal to spall off the armour's inside surface. The resulting fragments injure or kill the crew, damage equipment, and/or ignite ammunition and fuel. Unlike HEAT ammunition, HESH shells are not explicitly designed to penetrate the armour of main battle tanks, although performance depends on the thickness of the target's armour plating.

History

HESH was developed by (Charles) Dennis Burney during the Second World War as an anti-fortification munition for use against concrete. However, HESH rounds were found to be effective against metal armour as well. HESH was used for some time as a competitor to the more common HEAT round in British units, including infantry units equipped with recoilless rifles.

HESH rounds were most effective against Soviet vehicles built in the 1950s and 1960, and their use declined from the 1970s onwards. Tank armour became more difficult to defeat, due to layered designs using composites of hard metal and heat-resistant materials that don't transmit shock well. As well, a switch to smooth bore cannon as a major trend in ordnance construction has made HESH rounds less useful, as they rely on spin for accuracy.


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