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Pacific Coast Militia Rangers

Pacific Coast Militia Rangers

Authorized: 12 Aug 1942 (GO 320/42)

Disbanded: 30 Sep 1945

Brief History

The Pacific Coast Militia Rangers were formed after war with Japan began in December 1941. Discussions of a "Home Guard" for British Columbia began as early as January 1942. The Home Guard were soldiers in Great Britain who could not serve in the regular forces because they were too old, physically unfit, or needed in valuable war work. These part time soldiers would have played an important role in the defence of the UK had the Germans invaded.

Fear of Japanese invasion was rife in Canada after Pearl Harbor, and so the Coastal Defence Guards were started, finally reorganized and recognized as the Pacific Coast Militia Rangers (PCMR). These units were, as the name implied, unique to the west coast. They were perhaps more similar to the Partisans of the Eastern Front, or the French Resistance, in that their advantages lay in familiarity with local terrain and topography. Many experienced outdoorsmen were thus sought; and performed many roles. Some were not unlike the Australian coast watchers, remaining vigilant for signs of Japanese invasion but also training in anti-sabotage measures, and protection of lines of transportation and communication. Special training camps were set up, though some companies were too far away for their men to attend.

General Order 320 of 12 August 1942 made the PCMR a corps of the Canadian Army.

On 1 September 1942, a training publication called "The Ranger" was begun, in order to better disseminate useful information to the volunteers.

Description

One description of the PCMR can be found from an article by Wendy Johnson in the Oliver Chronicle in 2003 (the town newspaper of Oliver, British Columbia):

According to online resource material from CFB Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum, experienced men such as loggers, trappers, prospectors and ranchers were sought for this role. Those who were close to populated centres were trained and employed in intelligence duties and local defence against minor raids. They were instructed in tactical situations including observation, especially coast watching against a possible Japanese invasion, anti-sabotage measures and protection of lines of communication and transportation.

The idea grew like the war’s casualty rate and spread to the Interior. Hampered by distance and geography many rangers could not attend training camps; however, those who did were also trained in methods of instruction and were able to pass on the information to their own men after course completion.

Their training publication, “The Ranger,” issued on September 1, 1942, was a wealth of information apropos of the times and contained such articles as “Know where to shoot” “Edible plants of BC” “What can you do with a tarp” and “Dig or Die.”

The observation was that, “young lads…in outlying areas were extremely valuable. Boys of 15 years and up proved to be good shots, could handle an axe and were valuable as guides to city bred men.” Even those considered too old to join the war effort were able to contribute to the protection of BC.

The Oliver News issue of June 4, 1942 wrote that a force of more than 200 men—between Vaseaux Lake and the American border—had begun training for home defence. Captain F.W. Nesbitt was in command of Unit # 48, which was divided into five detachments. While rifle shooting was to be stressed in the training, the paper noted that “the men are to receive training in scouting, first aid, field craft, signaling and various tactics used in guerrilla warfare. Books on guerrilla warfare are now available and these are being studied by the men.”

The organization’s early months were plagued by a lack of clothing supplies and weaponry, but such situations often breed ingenuity. Oliver’s No. 48 Company’s training for that protection was achieved through the use of flour bombs.

Fred Tomlin, who was one of the local members of the PCMRs that first year before he joined the regular army, recalled it this way, “We were split into two groups and sent out into the sage and antelope brush back up in the hills, immediately north of where the [Aquila] power station now is.

“We had flour bombs with us in our ammunition pouches and we let them fly—when these little bags hit they exploded. As soon as a man was hit he turned white and was considered dead or captured. He had to stand up and hold up his hands.

“I was a little younger than some of the other men and I could skitter into those bushes farther than those 40-year-old fellows, so I got quite a few of them.”

Tomlin went on to say that their unit had a unique perspective, given the age of the members.

“Most of the rangers were soldiers from the First World War and many had been officers so when orders were given they knew what to do.”

The rangers remained on call until 1945. They came close to being called up for duty between November 1944 and April 1945 when the Japanese launched approximately 10,00 unmanned balloon bombs destined for the western North American coast. Of the total number released, only about 300 reached the continent and of those just 100 landed on Canadian soil. However, none caused the damage they were intended to inflict, which was to start forest fires, cause epidemics, divert resources and create panic in those being attacked.

The PCMRs stood down on September 30, 1945, having reached a top strength of 15,000 men.

Commanders

  • Vancouver Island: Lieutenant Colonel C.W. Peck, VC, DSO

  • Lower Fraser Valley: Lieutenant Colonel A.L.. Coote, VD

  • Bridge River Area: Major H. Ashby, DCM, MM

Units

The following listing of units of the Pacific Coast Militia Rangers comes from Mark Tonner and the CFB Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum.

Company Area Ranger Captain
No. 1 Company Victoria Goldstream, Sooke, the Jordan River area C.W. Burr
No. 2 Company West Vancouver Ambleside, Caufield, Horseshoe Bay A. McAlister
No. 3 Company Sidney Sidney, North Saanich Peninsula, Patricia Bay W. Newton
No. 4 Company Brentwood Brentwood, Tod Inlet M. Atkins
No. 5 Company Port Alberni Alberni, Great Central Lake, Franklin River E.T. Cox, MM
No. 6 Company Clo-oose Clo-oose K.T. Baird
No. 7 Company Camps 3 and 6, Youbou Youbou and North Cowichan Lake T. Fraser
No. 8 Company Youbou Youbou and West Cowichan Lake W. Cook (9 Sept 42-11 Jun 43)
J.W. Whittaker
No. 9 Company Rounds Rounds, South Cowichan Lake E.M. Olts (9 Apr 42-7 Dec 42)
R.J. Nichol (7 Dec 42-2 Aug 43)
F. Scott, DCM
No. 10 Company Camp 9 Duncan Area B. David, MM
No. 12 Company Mayo Duncan Area D.W. Miles
No. 13 Company Hillcrest Hillcrest, Mesachie Lake L.T. Traer
No. 14 Company Bamfield Bamfield, Cable Station G. Wellburn (9 Sep 42-1 Feb 43)
S.W. Fry
No. 15 Company Duncan Duncan, Sahtlam, Paldi A.J. McKelvie
No. 16 Company Crofton Crofton, Westholme G.T. Sharpe, MC
No. 17 Company Duncan Duncan, Somenos, Quamichan G.K. Hobson (9 Apr 42-14 Jun 43)
C.R. Downman
No. 18 Company Cowichan Lake Cowichan Lake, HIllbank, Cherry Point J.B. Acland (9 Apr 42-22 Jul 42)
C.L. Anderson (27 Jul 42-15 Dec 43)
C.R. West
No. 19 Company Shawnigan Lake Shawnigan Lake, Cobble Hill D.V. Palin (9 Apr 42-18 Mar 43)
F.S. Greenhouse
No. 20 Company Cowichan Lake Cowichan Lake, Chanlog J.F.T. Saywell
No. 21 Company Fanny Bay Fanny Bay, Bowser F. Curran
No. 22 Company Cumberland Cumberland W.H. Cope
No. 23 Company Courtenay Courtenay, Merville A. MacDonald (15 Apr 42-30 Apr 44)
W.E. Mantle
No. 24 Company Tsolum Tsolum, Courtenay, Sandwick C.C. Holmes
No. 25 Company Oyster Bay Oyster Bay, Oyster River A. Grant  (10 Apr 42-14 Jun 43)
A. Parkin
No. 26 Company Campbell River Campbell River, Cape Mudge J.H. Burgess (15 Apr 42-28 Aug 42)W.H. Bradley (29 Aug 42-20 May 43)
K.W. Brown (20 May 43-15 Feb 44)E.R. Vanstone
No. 27 Company Quinsam Quinsam, Campbell Lake, Forbes Landing J. Taylor
No. 28 Company Bloedel Bloedel, Camp 1 and Camp 5 Timber Area A.J. Mulcahy, DCM (15 Apr 42-17 Nov 42)
T.E. Perks
No. 29 Company Sardis Rosedale, Sardis, Vedder, Cheam K.H. White
No. 31 Company Nanaimo Nanaimo, Yellow Point, Wellington C. Stronach, MC, MM (11 Apr 42-31 May 42)
A. Leighton
No. 32 Company Parksville Parksville, Qualicum, HIlliers, Coombs J.E. Kingsley
No. 33 Company Ocean Falls Ocean Falls, Link Lake, Cousins Inlet G.B. Latimer, MC (13 Apr 42-8 Jul 42)
W.C. Scott (9 Jul 42-18 Jul 42)
H.E. Marsh (21 Apr 43-17 Nov 44)
T.A. Goodridge
No. 34 Company Bralorne Bralorne, Shalath, D'Arcy W.G. Osborne
No. 35 Company Pioneer Mines Goldbridge, Pioneer Mines J. Milne
No. 37 Company Lillooet Lillooet, Pachelqua, Moha A.J. Craig
No. 38 Company Ganges Ganges, Fulford J.H. Carvosso, MC
No. 39 Company Williams Lake Williams Lake, Likely, Alexis Creek, Forest Grove S.C. Elliott (14 May 42-16 Jun 43)
H.J. Gardner
No. 40 Company Sechelt Sechelt, Halfmoon Bay, Pender Harbour B.H. Harrison (15 Apr 42-20 Jan 43)
E.W. Parr-Pearson
No. 41 Company Bowen Island Bowen Island, Cowan's Point S.C. Frost (15 Apr 42-11 Aug 43)
J.A. Campbell (8 Jan 43-23 Jul 43)
J.H. Ashcroft
No. 42 Company Gibsons Landing Gibsons Landing, Roberts Creek R.T. French (15 Apr 42-24 Sep 42)
A. Pilling
No. 43 Company Port Alice Port Alice, Holberg, Quatsino, Marble Creek J.W. Fraser
No. 45 Company Salmon Arm Salmon Arm, Shuswap Lake J.T. Jones (30 Apr 42-16 Jun 43)
A.B. Cave
No. 46 Company Peachland Peachland, Westbank J.H. Wilson, MC
No. 47 Company Lasqueti Island Lasqueti Island, False Bay, Squitty Bay J.R. Rutherglen
No. 48 Company Oliver Oliver, Testalinda,Osoyoos F.W. Nesbitt
No. 49 Company Kingsgate Kingsgate, Yahk W.R. Baskerville
 (30 Apr 42 - 16 Jun 43)
H.J. Hogg
No. 50 Company Creston Creston, Boswell, Crawford Bay, Gray Creek F. Lister
 (30 Apr 42 - 23 Dec 44)
R.B. Robinson
No. 51 Company Armstrong Armstrong, Hullcar J. Fowler (30 Apr 42-1 Nov 43)
D.H. Jenkinson
No. 52 Company Smithers Smithers, Hazelton, Telkwa, Quick S.A. Cunliffe (24 Apr 42-30 Jun 44)
N.H. Kilpatrick
No. 53 Company Castlegar Castlegar, Robson S. Humphries
No. 54 Company Alert Bay Alert Bay, Malcolm Island A.W. Derrom, MM (14 Aug 42-16 Jun 43)
J.M. King
No. 55 Company Nimpkish Lake, Englewood Englewood F.W. Kirkland, MC, DCM
No. 56 Company Port McNeill Port McNeill, Cluxeive River H.C. McQuillan (10 Apr 42-2 Oct 42)
H. Walton
No. 57 Company Englewood Englewood, Beaver Cove, Nimpkish River E.A. Morrow (30 Apr 42-22 Jul 43)
P.J. McGuiness
No. 58 Company Port McNeill Port McNeill, Suquash, O'Connor Lake P.J. Cyr
No. 59 Company Port Hardy Port Hardy, Duval, Dillon Point W. Read
No. 60 Company Whonnock Whonnock, Ruskin, Silverdale F. Rolley (2 May 42-11 Nov 44)
L.F. Cameron
No. 61 Company Haney Haney, Pitt Meadows, Albion F.K. DeWolf (12 May 42-30 Jun 44)
J.D. Watson
No. 62 Company Deroche Deroche, Nicomen, Errock Lake P.H. Davies (2 May 42-31 Aug 42)
S.T. Jones (31 Aug 42-25 Nov 42)
S.F. Lyne (25 Nov 42-28 Aug 44)
T.R. Stobbart, MM
No. 63 Company Langley Langley Prairie A. Stacey
No. 64 Company Clinton Clinton, Bridge Lake, Gang Ranch, Jesmond J.W. Stewart (15 Aug 42-5 Aug 44)
C.H.M. Reay (5 Aug 44-31 Aug 45)
C.G. Sutherland
No. 65 Company Zeballos Zeballos, Ceepeecee G. Davis
No. 66 Company Dewdney Dewdney, Nicomen H. Davies
No. 67 Company Vernon Vernon, Coldstream, Lumby, Oyama C.W. Morrow (14 May 42-15 Oct 44)
L.R.H. Nash, MM
No. 68 Company Lytton Lytton, Styne, Botania A. Onion (12 May 42-15 May 42)
C.J. Hallisey
No. 69 Company Butedale Butedale, Gragan, Kilcane Inlet S. Tunnicliffe (7 May 42-15 Jul 42)
C. Cooke
No. 70 Company Terrace Copper City, Lower Skeena, Usk M. Dubeau
No. 71 Company Penticton Penticton, Kaleden R.N. Atkinson
No. 72 Company Trail Fruitvale, Rossland, Tadanac, Casino A.H. Hugill
No. 73 Company Hope Hope, North Bend, Boston Bar, Laidlaw H.W. Johnson (7 May 42-19 Apr 45)
C.E. Barry
No. 74 Company Bella Coola Bella Coola, Anahim Lake, Hagensborg I. Urseth, MM (7 May 42-13 Oct 42)
A.J.R. Buller (13 Oct 42-18 Dec 44)
T.A. Levelton
No. 75 Company Bella Bella Bella Bella, Namu, North Bentinck Arm G.S. Reade (7 May 42-4 Aug 42)
O. Bainbridge
No. 77 Company Coquitlam Coquitlam, Port Moody, Sunnyside, Maillardville F. Urquhart (12 May 42-16 Jun 42)
C.C. Smith
No. 78 Company Kimberley Kimberley, Chapman Camp H.W. Poole
No. 79 Company Merritt Merritt, Douglas Lake, Nicola, Quilchena G.S. Corbett (12 May 42-15 Apr 44)
K.Long
No. 80 Company Princeton Princeton, Hedley, Copper Mountain J.W. Southin (12 May 42-13 Oct 42)
P.W. Gregory
No. 81 Company Invermere Invermere, Spillimacheen, Canal Flats T.C. Bell, OBE
No. 82 Company Sicamous Sicamous, Malakwa J.A. Sim (14 May 42-19 May 42)
H.M. Paterson (22 Oct 43-15 Nov 43)
S.D. Finlayson
No. 83 Company Squamish Squamish, Garibaldi, Pemberton D.R. Willemar  (14 May 42-1 Dec 42)
S.C. Frost
No. 84 Company Ladner Ladner, East Delta, Boundary Bay, Canoe Pass R.E. Hutcherson  (14 May 42-13 Oct 42)
G.C.P. Montizambert (16 Oct 42-2 Mar 45)
C.V. Stainsby
No. 85 Company Kamloops Barriere, Savona, Blackpool, Blue River A.E. McElligot, DSO
No. 86 Company Britannia Beach Britannia Beach, North East Howe Sound R.H. Swan
No. 87 Company West Summerland West Summerland, Trout Creek S.A. McDonald
No. 88 Company Abbotsford Straiton, Matsqui, Brander, Sumas T.V. Thompson
No. 89 Company Burnaby South Burnaby Lake, Central Park, Royal Oak T. Kirk, MM (24 May 42-19 Mar 45)
N.C. Robinson
No. 90 Company Burnaby North Capitol Hill, Barnet G. Charlton
No. 91 Company Burnaby East Lozells, Edmonds G. Smith (24 May 42-27 Jun 42)
R.S. King (27 Jun 42 - 31 Aug 43)
C.B. Brown
No. 93 Company Surrey White Rock, Cloverdale, Colebrook F. Hassall
No. 94 Company Agassiz Agassiz, Harrison Mills W.P. Lilly (30 May 42-21 Apr 43)
M.F. Clarke
No. 95 Company Port Simpson Port Simpson, Finlayson Island W.H. Helin (25 Jul 42-1 Feb 43)
E.C. Valpy
No. 96 Company Queen Charlotte City Queen Charlotte City, Tlell, Skidegate D.T.R. McColl (9 Jun 42-12 Oct 43)
E.S. Richardson
No. 97 Company Quesnel Quesnel, Kersley, Marguerite E.J. Gook
No. 98 Company Wells Wells, Barkerville J. Fielding (8 Jun 42-17 Sep 43)
G. Kitchen (17 Sep 43-27 Apr 45)
C. Caldwell (11 Apr 45-31 Aug 45)

J.B. Taylor
No. 99 Company Stave Falls Stave Falls, Hatzic Prairie, Ferndale A.D. McRae (15 Jun 42-17 Feb 43)
A.E. Watkins (17 Feb 43-10 Jun 43)
C.H. Cade
No. 100 Company Kelowna Okanagan, Rutland, Glenmore G.N. Kennedy
No. 101 Company Ladysmith Ladysmith, Blainy, Brenton S.J. Brinham (15 Jun 42-15 Jan 43)
J.B. Armstrong (15 Jan 43-18 Jun 43)

G.V. Osborn
No. 102 Company Ucluelet Ucluelet, Port Albion, Stapleby, Wreck Bay W.L. Hillier (15 Jun 42-14 Aug 42)
G.H. Gilroy-Moore
No. 103 Company Tofino Tofino, Long Beach, Clayoquot S.R. Bayly (15 Jun 42-13 Jan 43)
C.H. Donaldson (13 Jan 43-13 Sep 43)
T. Gibson
No. 104 Company McBride McBride, Dore Creek, Teare Mountain H.R. Sansom (17 Jun 42-28 May 45)
E.F. Taggart
No. 105 Company Masset Masset, Northern Graham Island R.M. Stewart (17 Jun 42-12 Sep 42)
B.T. Phillips (18 Jun 43-7 Dec 43)
S.S. Littleton (7 Dec 43-1 Apr 44)
J.P. Stewart-Burton
No. 106 Company Hudson Hope Hudson Hope, Moberly Lake, Gold Bar D.H. Cuthill (19 Jun 42-1 Nov 44)
V.V. Peck
No. 107 Company Port Renfrew Port Renfrew, Malahat, Hennigson K. Blakeney (23 Jun 42-28 Aug 44)
C.D. Mutter
No. 108 Company Cumshewa Cumshewa Inlet, J.R. Morgan Ltd. C.C. Germyn
No. 109 Company Cumshewa Inlet  (Queen Charlotte Islands) Cumshewa Inlet, Louise Island, Skedans Bay W.J. Allison (23 Jun 42-5 Mar 43)
J.W. Dorman (5 Mar 43-4 Jun 43)
H.H. Baxter (30 Jun 43-18 Dec 43)
J.A. McKenzie (18 Dec 43-11 Aug 44)
G. Bell
No. 110 Company Kaslo Kaslo, Lardeau, New Denver W.H. Dunn
No. 111 Company Nakusp Nakusp H.G.M. Hakeman
No. 112 Company Chamis Bay Chamis Bay, Kyuquot H. Routhier
No. 113 Company Huxley Island  (Queen Charlotte Islands) Huxley Island, Wernier Island R.J. Simonds (1 Jul 42-24 Jan 43)
J. Hayes
No. 114 Company Cumshewa Inlet Cumshewa Inlet, Skidegate Lake A. Ostram
No. 115 Company Golden Golden, Parson, Field W. Wenman
No. 116 Company Enderby Enderby, Hullcar S.M. Edgar (6 Jul 42-15 Jul 43)
A.H. Woodley
No. 117 Company New Westminster Queensboro, Brunette, Poplar Island R.W. MacLeod (16 Jul 42-6 Aug 42)
R.S. MacPherson, MC (6 Aug 42-15 Oct 44)
E.W. Bell
No. 118 Company West Point Grey West Point Grey, Vancouver South, Marpole C.S. Williams
No. 119 Company Gambier Island Gambier Island, Port Mellon, East Bay F. Drage
No. 120 Company Ashcroft Ashcroft, Hat Creek, Spences Bridge E.P. Marston
No. 121 Company South Slocan South Slocan, Brilliant, Bonnington W. Wadeson
No. 122 Company Nootka Nootka, Maquinna Point, Friendly Cove A. Park
No. 123 Company Ahousat Ahousat, Refuge Cove B.L. Clayton (29 Jul 42-30 Mar 43)
G. Rae-Arthur
No. 124 Company Chase Chase, Tappen, Sorrento, Pritchard C.B. Tremayne (21 Aug 42-1 Oct 43)
W.T. Gordon
No. 125 Company Richmond Richmond, Steveston, Brighouse F.P.R. James, MC
No. 126 Company Galiano Island North and South Galiano Island, Mayne Island A. Fisher, MC
No. 127 Company Pender & Saturna Islands Pender Island, Saturna Island, Hope Bay J. Bridge, MC
No. 128 Company Deep Cove Deep Cove, North Arm W.E. Gallant
No. 129 Company Grand Forks Grand Forks, Rock Creek R.H. MacIntosh (29 Sep 42-31 May 45)
A.C. Clapp
No. 130 Company Naas River Naas River, Aiyanch, Kincolith, Canyon City A.E. Nelson
No. 131 Company Prince George South Fort George, Sinclair Mills, Dome Creek E.H. Burden
No. 132 Company Rivers Inlet Rivers Inlet, Goose Bay, Draney Inlet G.H. Gildersleeve
No. 133 Company James Island James Island C. Hibbett
No. 134 Company Woodfibre North West Howe Sound R.F. Lyons (27 Nov 42-9 Aug 43)
W.W. Smith
No. 135 Company Dawson, Y.T. Dawson, Bear Creek, Moosehide F.E. Enevoldsen (2 Dec 42-7 Mar 43)
C.H. Chapman
No. 136 Company Pinchi Lake Pinchi Lake P.T. Bloomer
No. 137 Company Vanderhoof Vanderhoof, Fort St. James, Fort Fraser J.W. H. Wilkes

Uniforms and Insignia

The original uniform consisted of a simple armband, which was consistent with the international rules of warfare. In time, equipment and uniforms were made available, and the PCMR adopted many unique examples of both. Eventually, their uniform consisted of bone-dry pants, bone-dry camouflage jackets and hats similar to the later Tilley.

The organization’s early months were plagued by a lack of clothing supplies and weaponry, but such situations often breed ingenuity. Oliver’s No. 48 Company’s training for that protection was achieved through the use of flour bombs.

The Pacific Coast Militia Rangers wore a distinctive set of uniform and insignia components during their brief existence.

Cap Badge

An online article by Wendy Johnson tells us that

Although not much information could be found regarding the designer of the organization’s badge, an unsigned extract from a letter to Jimmie White from the founder of the rangers was located in the Oliver and District Heritage Society archives. “The badge was my own design…the badge I feel is unique. It could not well be worn anywhere except in BC. The double bitted axe and 30/30 carbine are characteristic of the area...The Thunderbird of course belongs to BC but in the case of the bird on the badge it is looking skyward instead of straight out over the horizon…It so happened that when the final sketch came to me for approval we had just been hearing about the German parachute invasion of Crete, so as a final thought I had the artist change the sketch to show the bird looking skyward. The maple leaf and the Vigilans complete the story.”

 

Clothing

The field of Pacific Coast Militia Ranger uniforms is a study all to its own, as there was a great variety of clothing used. The images of the hats shown above come from online auctions purport to be period examples; the lightweight construction is evident in these pieces.

Bill Ellis passes on the following:

Mike, this  (see right) is the only example of a title to the "PCMR" that I have ever seen, I have never seen a metal title to this unit, however, I have seen armlets made of white duck canvas and also khaki drill materials, that say "PCMR" and also the unit location ie."Alert Bay" "Fanny Bay" "Salmon Arm" etc printed on them. I had one once in my collection, but, I traded it away for some other bauble, unaware of its rarity. I have seen an extensive collection of these armlets, all different units, owned by a collector on Vancouver Island, in fact, he had them displayed in a little private museum he owned on the island. Mention is made of these armlets in the publication of Canadian cloth titles by Edwards and Sexton.

Underneat is an armband to the PCMR; No.1 Coy, S.V.I. (South Vancouver Island) courtesy Bill Ellis.

Rank Insignia

Rank insignia as worn by the Active Army as also worn in the PCMR; it was permissible to wear NCO rank badges on the right sleeve only, but was considered proper to have it on both sleeves. The armband was permitted to partially cover the chevrons on the right sleeve. Medal ribbons were permitted to be worn over the left breast pocket by those who had earned them.

The wearing of CANADA flashes, Atlantic Command Patches, GS Badges and other insignia of the Active Army was not permitted.

Dress Regulations

Image adapted from period document, CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum Archives

Notes

  1. Thanks to Christopher Ono for helping with the PCMR badge.


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